Sunday, June 28, 2015

Abraham Lincoln, Women, and That Persistent Rumor That he Was Gay

Abraham Lincoln
(From Leslie's Magazine - 1909)
When we talk about Abraham Lincoln and his relationships with women one of the first questions we need to ask is, Did Abe play for the other team? Several authors have hinted that Lincoln may have been a closet homosexual. Most notable among these was C. A. Tripp in his book The Intimate World of Abraham Lincoln published in 2005. The book purports to detail Lincoln’s affair with an army Captain among several others. Readers should keep a skeptical eye when approaching Tripp’s work. Several years after the publication of his book one of his co-authors Philip Noble came clean to the New York Times and confessed that the “book is a fraud.”

Let’s take a look at the supporting evidence.

The most damning evidence used to tag Lincoln a homosexual is the fact that at several points in his lifetime he shared his bed with other men. By today’s standards that could be considered a prima facia case, but frontier life presented a different set of challenges from today. Doris Kearns in her book Team of Rivals noted that it was common for lawyers and judges riding the circuit in Lincoln’s time to share a bed. The reason was there were limited accommodations available on the Illinois frontier so there was no other choice available.

Many people were forced to share rooms or beds. It was a fact of life. Looked at from the standards of his day, Lincoln’s bunking with Joshua Speed when he first arrived in Springfield wasn’t all that unusual.

It is a well-known fact that Joshua Speed was a womanizer. He spent plenty of time with the girls of Springfield, and when he was feeling particularly frisky he spent his time with the prostitutes.

William Herndon told Jesse Weik (his collaborator) this story about Lincoln visiting a prostitute.

The story starts out with Lincoln asking Joshua Speed, “Do you know where I can get some (you fill in the blank)?”

Speed told Lincoln to wait a moment while he wrote him a letter of introduction to a young lady. Then he sent Lincoln off with directions on how to approach her. After stripping down and getting into bed with the prostitute Lincoln asked her, “How much?”

When she told him five dollars Lincoln responded that her priced seemed fair, but all he had with him was three dollars. She offered to trust him for the other two dollars, but Lincoln told her he didn’t want to feel indebted so he got dressed and left.

The humor and sentiment is definitely Lincoln’s, and Herndon didn’t have any reason to lie to Weik about the story. They both understood it would be inappropriate to include it in their biography of Lincoln.

Lincoln’s first infatuation was an ill-fated affair with Anne Rutledge. Herndon describes Anne as “a beautiful girl.” She was pretty, “slightly slender,” stood five foot, two inches tall, and weighed about 120 lbs.

They met in 1835, shortly after Lincoln arrived in New Salem. Their courtship was short, and she died suddenly of typhoid fever.

Lincoln’s next love interest was Mary Owens. She came to New Salem from Green County, Kentucky to visit her sister sometime in 1833. Her acquaintance with Lincoln lasted a month at most before she returned to her home in Kentucky.

Lincoln didn’t see her again until 1836. The way Herndon tells the story, Lincoln said, “If Mary Owens ever returned to Illinois a second time he would marry her.” As a result they spent more time together on her second trip to New Salem.

Mary Owens
Mary Owens was the exact opposite of Abraham Lincoln. She came from a wealthy family and was well educated. From all accounts she was a pretty girl with dark curly hair. She stood five feet, five inches tall, weighed about 150 pounds, and was considered to be a good catch by many of the New Salem bachelors in 1836.

They were together for about a year before Mary Owens broke off the relationship. She wrote Herndon in 1866 saying, “I suppose that my feelings were not sufficiently enlisted to have the matter consummated. About the beginning of the year 1838 I left Illinois, and our acquaintance and correspondence ceased.”

For his part Lincoln wrote a letter to Mrs. O. H. Browning on August 1, 1838, describing his thoughts on Mary Owens, “…although I had seen her before, she did not look as my imagination pictured her. I knew she was over-size, but she now appeared a fair mate for Falstaff…her skin was too full of fat to permit it contracting into wrinkles, but from her want of teeth, weather-beaten appearance in general, and from a kind of notion that ran in my head that nothing could have commenced at the size of infancy and reached her present bulk in less than 35 or 40 years; and, in short, I was not at all pleased with her. But what could I do?”

It was an obvious jab at Mary Owens for leaving him, and most likely helped Lincoln get over his disappointment with the way the relationship ended. He closed the letter to Mrs. Browning by saying, “I have now come to the conclusion never again to think of marrying, and for this reason I can never be satisfied with anyone who would be blockheaded enough to have me.”

Mary Todd was a breath of fresh air when she first visited Springfield in 1837. She was twenty years old; stood five feet, two inches tall; had reddish brown hair; blue eyes; and had studied at the Shelby Female Academy, and Madame Charlotte Le Clere Montelle’s boarding school. She spoke French, and was the product of a wealthy family. Her father Robert Todd was a prominent Kentucky merchant and politician, the father of fifteen children, and owned hundreds of slaves.

Her sister, Elizabeth Edwards, was the wife of Illinois Governor Ninian Edwards, and among the social elite of Illinois.

Mary Todd left Springfield after a three month stay, and returned to Illinois in 1839. She was pursued by many suitors among them Stephen A. Douglas and Abraham Lincoln. It is sure that Elizabeth Edwards and her husband found Lincoln a strange suitor. Compared to Mary Todd he was uneducated, had a rough personality suited to the frontier, and a large and gangly appearance.

Lincoln and Mary Todd had an off-again, on-again relationship with Lincoln breaking off their engagement in late 1840. Early in 1842 they got back together, and were married on November 4th, 1842. Robert Lincoln was born nine months later, followed by Edward in 1846, William (Willie) in 1850, and Thomas (Tad) in 1853.

They spent their first two years together living at the Globe Tavern at Springfield. Two years later they moved into their own home at Springfield where they would spend the rest of their time together, other than their years in the White House.

Mary was temperamental, and experienced wild mood swings at times. John Hay, the President’s secretary, described her as a “hellcat.” Some of her problems can be explained by her situation. She came from a wealthy family, and her life with Abraham Lincoln was completely dissimilar to the life she was used to. The Lincoln’s were poor and lived in a tavern for the first two years of their marriage. Being married to Lincoln was a lot like living alone. He was away much of the time riding the circuit as a frontier lawyer. As a result she was forced to take care of the Lincoln home and children on her own. From all accounts when he was home Lincoln was a very permissive father and let the children run wild.

Mary pushed Lincoln to better himself. When he was offered the Governorship of Oregon Mary encouraged him to decline the office. Her thought was it could delay his jump into the national political arena.

Personal hardships also plagued the Lincolns. Their son Edward died in 1850 and another son Willie died in 1862. Both Lincolns were devastated by the death of their children, particularly Willie who died during their early days in the White House. Mary took it particularly hard and turned to a number of spiritualists for comfort.

It is known that the President and Mrs. Lincoln attended several séances during their time in Washington. One séance at the White House was conducted by medium Charles Shauckle, and was witnessed by a reporter from the Boston Gazette. It is said the spirit of General Henry Knox, George Washington’s Secretary of War, visited Lincoln that night to advise him on military tactics.

Another medium Mary Lincoln had considerable contact with was Nettie Colburn Maynard. She later wrote a book, Was Abraham Lincoln a Spiritualist? (1891). It detailed her experiences in the Lincoln White House, and named the prominent Washington families who attended her séances.

It could be argued that Mary Lincoln let her mind run wild during those bleak years in the White House. She claimed to have been visited by the ghosts of three former Presidents: Thomas Jefferson, Andrew Jackson, and John Tyler.

Life in the White House had its ups and downs for Mary Lincoln. She spent much of her time in the military hospitals nursing sick and wounded soldiers and reading to them; she took on the task of modernizing and updating the White House. Her wild spending pushed the project way over budget, and news of it shocked Lincoln and people all over the country. Stories of her extravagance spread through the Washington papers. This combined with her personal spending habits got her labeled a shopaholic.

Because she was from the South, Northerners eyed her with suspicion. She was the first lady of the Union, yet three of her brothers perished fighting for the Confederacy. Alexander Todd died at Baton Rouge, Samuel Todd was killed fighting in the Battle of Shiloh, and David Todd perished at Vicksburg.

In the South she was considered a traitor because of her marriage to Lincoln, and her anti-slavery stance.

After Abraham Lincoln’s death Mary Lincoln’s problems worsened. She spent the years from 1868 to 1871 traveling through Europe with her son Tad. In 1875 her son Robert had her committed to an insane asylum because of her wild spending habits, and other fears for her safety. She secured her freedom after three months, and fled the country fearing Robert would have her committed again. She returned to the United States in 1881, and lived with her sister Elizabeth Edwards in Springfield. She died of a stroke in 1882, and was buried beside her husband.

Sunday, June 14, 2015

Dalton Brothers Coffeyville Bank Robbery

Bob and Grat Dalton
Photographed after their death
From The Dalton Brothers & Their
Astounding Career of Crime
, 1892
Bob Dalton had this crazy idea.
He wanted to make the Dalton Gang more famous than Jesse James. The only problem was to do that he had to do something spectacular, something never tried before, something so bold, so daring the newspapers couldn’t help but take notice.
When he told his brother Emmett what he wanted to do, Emmett thought he was nuts. Rob two banks, in the same town, at the same time, in a town everyone knew you in. It didn’t make sense. The only reason Emmett said he went along was, “he was damned if he did, and damned if he didn’t.” Even if he stayed out of it, he was sure the law would hunt him down.
The best account of the daring robbery was published in the Coffeyville Journal shortly after the robbery took place. “Between 9:30 and 10:00 on Wednesday morning, [the Dalton Gang] armed to the teeth and apparently disguised, rode boldly into [Coffeyville].”
The boys hitched their horses in an alley, and quickly made their way to the two banks. Grat Dalton, Bill Powers, and Dick Broadwell entered the C. M. Condon Bank; Bob and Emmett Dalton hurried into the First National Bank.
Grat was disguised with a black mustache and side whiskers. He ordered the clerk to hand over the cash, “and be quick about it.” When one of the robbers told the cashier, C. M. Ball, to grab the money from the safe, he told them he couldn’t—it was on a time lock, and couldn’t be opened for another three minutes. By that time gunfire erupted outside the bank, and the robbers made a rush for the alley.
At the First National Bank, Bob Dalton was disguised with a mustache and false goatee. “They covered the teller and cashiers with their Winchesters…and directed [the cashier] to hand over all the money in the bank.” When they heard gunshots outside, Bob and Emmett hurried out the back door, and opened fire. Lucius Baldwin, George Cubine, and Charles Brown fell dead.
By this time all five bandits were in the alley attempting to make their way to their horses. “A dozen men with Winchesters and shotguns made a barricade of some wagons. The robbers had to run the gauntlet of three hundred feet with their backs to the Winchesters in the hands of men who knew how to use them.” A murderous fired poured through the alley for three minutes. “Three of the robbers were dead, and the fourth helpless.” Dick Broadwell made it to his horse, but was discovered dead on the ground about a half mile outside of town.
Dalton Gang (Photographed after death)
From The Dalton Brothers & Their
Astounding Career of Crime
, 1892
Emmett Dalton was the only member of the gang to survive. He was carried to Slosson’s Drug Store, and later to Dr. Wells’ office. There was a lot of talk about lynching him, but what probably saved his life more than anything, was the doctor didn’t give him a chance in hell of surviving.
The bodies of the dead gang members were carted to the sheriff’s office, and later placed in four varnished black coffins where they were displayed and photographed so everyone would know what had happened. Some people touched the bodies, as if that would make the experience more real. It is said, “Whenever Grat Dalton’s right arm was lifted a little spurt of blood would jump from the round black hole in his throat.”
The next day the town watched as the undertaker shooed flies away from the bodies, and nailed the lids on the caskets down. The coffins were planted two to a grave in Potter’s Field.
The Galveston Daily News headline on October 6th, 1892 read, “The Dalton Gang has been exterminated—wiped off the face of the earth.”
The only survivor, Emmett Dalton, received a life sentence in the Kansas State Penitentiary at Lansing. He was pardoned by Governor Ed Hoch in 1907, and lived until 1937. He later became a policeman, and actor, and wrote the story of his life, When the Daltons Rode, published in 1931.

Wednesday, May 13, 2015

Life and Death of Billy the Kid

Charles Siringo in his History of Billy the Kid portrays Billy as a crazed psycho killer who made his first kill at age twelve. According to Siringo, Billy snuck off to Fort Union, New Mexico, where he gambled with the Negro soldiers. One “black nigger” cheated him, and he shot the man dead. Not long after that he stabbed a man three times in a saloon fight, and ran out of the establishment with blood dripping from his right hand.

Only known photo of Billy the Kid
(from Chas. Siringo, History of Billy the Kid, 1920)
Siringo blamed it on Billy’s violent temper, but Sheriff Pat Garrett, the man who would eventually track Billy down, and kill him, says just the opposite. Garrett says people often talked about the look in Billy’s eye, and his temper just before he killed, but the Kid wasn’t like that. According to Garrett, Billy ate “and laughed, drank and laughed, talked and laughed, fought and laughed and killed and laughed.”

The only picture we have of Billy the Kid doesn’t do him justice. He looks more like a mental defective with a lopsided face, than someone often described as a ladies man. Billy stood five foot, eight inches tall, weighed about 140 pounds, and had a stringy muscular build. His hair was a sandy brownish-blond, and the one thing that stuck out about the Kid, was his sense of humor.

In other circumstances he might have been a politician, or a business mogul, but in the old west, he was a gunman and one of the best at his trade.

Very little is known about the Kid’s early life. He may have been born in New York, or in Indiana, but there is no evidence to favor either state.  He was born William Henry McCarty, Jr., but the name he used in New Mexico was William H. Bonney.

His first real kill occurred sometime after he turned sixteen. Frank “Windy” Cahill, the blacksmith at Fort Grant, got a kick out of bullying and pushing Billy around. One day he pushed him a little too far, and began chasing and swearing at him, finally he knocked him to the ground and started to pummel his face. Billy was no fool. He knew he couldn’t outfight Cahill, so he pulled his gun, and shot him dead. The coroner’s inquest labeled the killing a homicide, and Billy hit the trail one step ahead of the law.

Billy reappeared in Lincoln County, New Mexico Territory, sometime in 1877. About this time he changed his name to William H. Bonney, and began working for the Coe-Saunders ranch. That move placed him smack-dab in the Center of the Lincoln County War.

The Lincoln County War began in the summer of 1876, but started to heat up in the spring of 1877. John Chisum was the Cattle King of New Mexico. He ran 40,000 to 80,000 head of cattle letting them range over a 200 square mile area. The smaller ranchers accused Chisum of swallowing up their cattle and placing the Chisum brand on them. Chisum claimed just the opposite. He said the small ranchers cut cattle out of his herds and sold them to the army posts for a quick profit.

Alex McSween was a prominent Lincoln County lawyer, and ally of John Chisum. Originally he worked as a lawyer for Murphy and Dolan, and then switched allegiances to work as an attorney for John Chisum. Murphy and Dolan later claimed McSween had been embezzling money from them.
John Tunstall was a wealthy Englishman who was convinced by Alex McSween that Lincoln County was ripe for the picking. Tunstall bought a ranch on the Rio Feliz, and set up a store and bank in the town of Lincoln. In doing so he allied himself with the Chisum faction.

Lawrence Murphy and John Dolan ran the Murphy-Dolan store just down the street from Tunstall’s new store. They’d had a monopoly on business in Lincoln since Murphy started the business in 1869, and because of that charged the local ranchers exorbitant prices for their goods. When Tunstall opened his store, and charged lower prices, it began stealing business away from the Murphy-Dolan store.

Things soon turned violent with each side employing hired guns to get their way.

In February of 1878 Deputy Sheriff William Morton, and his posse, began rounding up horses owned by Tunstall and McSween. Morton claimed Tunstall pulled his gun, so he shot him off his horse. Just after that Tom Hill rode up to Tunstall, placed his shotgun to his head, and “scattered his brains over the ground.”

Sheriff Pat Garrett
(From Pat F. Garrett, The Authentic Life of
Billy the Kid
, 1882)
R. M. Brewer, Tunstall’s ranch foreman, was sworn in as a special constable in Lincoln, and his posse, known as the Regulators, rode off in search Tunstall’s killers. They captured Morton and Baker on March 6th, but reported that they were killed in an escape attempt on March 9th. The Regulators later ambushed and killed Sheriff William Brady, and his deputy, Fred Waite, on the main street of Lincoln.

Violence continued to rage throughout the spring and summer of 1878. New Mexico Governor Lew Wallace (a former Civil War general, and the author of Ben Hur) offered an amnesty for any man involved in the Lincoln County War who wasn’t currently under indictment. Billy sent Wallace a letter offering to testify in return for an amnesty. Governor Wallace and the Kid met in Lincoln in March of 1879 to negotiate for Billy’s testimony. The story is Billy met Wallace with a six-shooter in one hand, a Winchester 73 rifle in the other.

According to the deal, Billy was supposed to be arrested for a short period of time, and when he was done testifying, he was supposed to be set free. The bargain wasn’t kept, and the Kid soon escaped. His life was uneventful for the next year and a half. He stole a few horses, and rustled some cattle. The only standout event during this period was his gun battle with Joe Grant, a gunfighter wannabe. The story is Grant went on a wild bender at Hargrove’s Saloon, and grabbed a gun from one of Billy’s compadres. Billy got ahold of the gun, and set it to an empty chamber, then egged Grant into a fight. When Grant pulled his gun, it clicked on an empty cylinder, and Billy shot him dead.

Pat Garrett was elected sheriff of Lincoln County in November of 1880, and set out with a posse to chase down Billy. The kid surrendered to Garrett, and was turned over to United States Marshal Charles Conklin in Santa Fe, New Mexico, on December 27, 1880. His trial was held at Mesilla, New Mexico in March of 1881, and he was convicted for the killing of Sheriff William Brady. On April 1st Billy the Kid was sentenced to be hanged on May 13th, 1881.

While he was waiting to be hanged Billy was confined in the old Murphy-Dolan store in Lincoln. On the evening of April 28th Billy over-powered Deputy J. W. Bell on the stairs outside of his prison, snatched his gun, and shot him dead. Inside the jailhouse he grabbed Pat Garrett’s rifle from his office, and laid in wait for Deputy Marshal Robert Olinger to return.  After killing Olinger Billy stole a horse and galloped out of town.

On July 14th Garrett received word the Kid was holed up in the abandoned ruins of Fort Sumner, and he rode off to bring him in. According to Garrett’s account of Billy’s death published in his book The Authentic Life of Billy the Kid, he went to the ranch of Peter Maxwell looking for the Kid.
Garrett was in Maxwell’s bedroom questioning him on the whereabouts of the Kid when Billy stumbled in with a six-shooter in one hand, and a meat cleaver in the other. It was dark, and at first Billy didn’t realize anyone was in the room with Maxwell.

Maxwell whispered, “That’s him!”

The Kid jumped back, “raised his pistol, a self-cocker, within a foot of my breast. Retreating rapidly across the room he cried: ‘Quien es?’ ‘Quien es?’ All this occurred in a moment. Quickly as possible I drew my revolver and fired, threw my body aside, and fired again. The second shot was useless; the kid fell dead. He never spoke. A struggle or two, a little strangling sound as he gasped for breath, and the Kid was with his victims.”

Thursday, April 23, 2015

Who Really Created the First Flag? Betsy Ross, George Washington, or Francis Hopkinson?

Betsy Ross
 (from The History of the First
United States Flag
, 1878)
Betsy Ross is as American as mom, apple pie, and Chevrolet, but is she for real? What would you say if I told you 99.9 percent of Americans never heard of Betsy Ross before 1870?

It’s true.

Elizabeth Ross was an obscure Philadelphia upholsterer and sometimes flag maker, until her grandson, William Canby presented a paper before the Pennsylvania Historical Society in 1870. The nation was gearing up for the bicentennial celebration when Canby decided to share his grandmother’s story with the world. And, it was just what the nation needed at that time—a female hero.

As it turns out, Betsy Ross wasn’t just a flag maker. She was a storyteller, too. And the story she shared with her children and grandchildren was a whopper that they would never forget.

Here’s the story as Canby tells it.

Somewhere between May 23rd and June 7th, 1777 three members of the Congressional Flag Committee visited Betsy Ross in her upholstery shop on Arch Street in Philadelphia. The committee members included George Washington, Robert Morris, and Colonel George Ross (a member of the Continental Congress, and an uncle of her late husband).

The three men were on a mission to create the new nation’s first official flag, and George Washington himself asked Betsy Ross to make it. The committee already had a design in mind, and showed it to Betsy to get her input.

According to Canby, Betsy replied that “she could try” to make it, but first she had a few suggestions to make it even better. The original design was unsymmetrical, so Betsy suggested a few changes, the most important of which was using a five pointed star instead of the six pointed star designated by the Committee. When questioned about the difficulty of making a five pointed star, Betsy grabbed her shears and quickly cut a five pointed star.

The Committee was impressed and retired to a back room of the crowded upholstery shop to mull over the new design. George Washington himself took charge and drew the new design taking pains to get it just right.

When Washington finished sketching the new flag the members of the Committee hurried off to have a local artist, William Barrett, make a painting for Betsy to work from. Betsy scurried off to visit a local warship so she could examine the ship’s colors and see how they were made.

Betsy Ross Creating Flag (1910 postcard image)
When the painting was done, the Committee members brought it back to Betsy, and she quickly made the new flag. It was accepted the next day, and according to the story, Colonel Ross gave Betsy one hundred pounds to get started making all the flags she could crank out.

So far, so good. The only problem is—there’s no evidence to support the story.

For something so newsworthy, there is no coverage of the story in the local or national press. On June 14, 1777 there is a short one sentence reference to the flag on page 235 of Dunlap’s Journal of Congress. “Resolved that the flag of the United States be thirteen stripes alternately red and white; that the Union be thirteen stars in a blue field representing a new constellation.”

Further research by Canby places George Washington, Robert Morris, and Colonel George Ross in Philadelphia at the stated time. The only thing missing is hard evidence. Nothing points to Betsy Ross as the first flag maker. The journals of the Continental Congress don’t have any record of a Flag Committee. There are no receipts payable to Betsy Ross. Canby counters with the fact that Congress oftentimes formed as many as six committees a day at this time, most of them of which were unrecorded. As further evidence, he says that amidst the turmoil and fighting during that period, making a flag was considered trivial, and not worth mentioning.

Finally, lacking real evidence, Canby included affidavits from Betsy Ross’s daughters, granddaughters, and nieces reciting stories they were told as children.

In truth, it’s a great story—one we all learn in elementary school, but one that very likely will never be proven.

Betsy Ross’s personal story was just as remarkable.

She was born Elizabeth Griscom on January 1st, 1752. She was the eighth of seventeen siblings, and was apprenticed to William Webster as an upholsterer. Betsy met her first husband John Ross while working for Webster. They eloped in 1773 when she was twenty-one. John Ross was a soldier in the Continental army, and died in 1776 during an accidental gunpowder explosion on the Philadelphia waterfront.

A year later she married Joseph Ashburn, a sailor in the Continental Navy. His ship was captured in 1781, and he died the next year in a British prison. She married again in 1783 to John Claypoole. That union lasted thirty-four years until he died of natural causes in 1817.

Betsy Ross lived until 1836, sharing stories of her adventures with her children, grandchildren, and neighbors.

The other claimant to designing the first flag was Francis Hopkinson.

He was born into a wealthy family, graduated from the College of Philadelphia, and went on to become an author, musician, and customs collector. In 1761 he hung out his shingle as a lawyer. He was a New Jersey delegate to the Continental Congress, and one of the fifty-six signers of the Declaration of Independence.

After the Revolutionary War, Hopkinson served as a member of the Constitutional Convention. In 1789 George Washington appointed him a U S District Judge for Pennsylvania.

He was a consultant to the Great Seal Committee in 1776, and helped to design the Great Seal of the United States. In 1778 Hopkinson designed a fifty dollar Continental currency note, and later a forty dollar note.

His claim to designing the American flag stems from an invoice he submitted to Congress in 1780. It was rejected because he didn’t include any vouchers to back up his expenses.

Similar to Betsy Ross there is no hard evidence to support Hopkinson’s claim as designer of the first American flag.

Excerpt from my upcoming book History Bytes: 37 People, Places, and Events that Shaped American History

Sunday, April 12, 2015

America's Namesake - Amerigo Vespucci, or Richard Amerike?

Early Portrait of Amerigo Vespucci
Naming a continent is a funny thing.

One man is the acknowledged discoverer of an entire new world, yet by pure chance, it is named after another.

History tells us a German cartographer, Martin Waldseemüller, scribbled America over the country of Brazil on a new map he was working on in 1507. He’d read Vespucci’s account of his discoveries and decided it was a good way to honor the navigator and discoverer of that area.

According to Waldseemüller he wrote the word America across Brazil on the new map because, “I see no reason why anyone should justly object to calling this part America, after Amerigo [Vespucci] its discoverer, a man of great ability.”

Over time, the name just sort of stuck.

In 1538, the famed mapmaker Gerardus Mercator extended the name to all of North and South America. From that point on Amerigo Vespucci’s Novus Mundo, or new world, would bear his name.


To further understand how Amerigo Vespucci became the name sake for America we need to delve further into the man and his age.

Amerigo Vespucci was born March 9th, 1454 in Florence, Italy. As a young man he worked as a clerk for Lorenzo de’ Medici. In 1492 he was dispatched to Cadiz, Spain to serve as an agent in that branch. In 1495 Vespucci helped procure supplies for Columbus’s second voyage.

In 1499 Vespucci switched his allegiances and began work for the King of Portugal. He participated in several voyages of discovery. Some say he acted as an observer for the king, other accounts contend he was a navigator on several of the voyages. Whichever account is true, Vespucci was present on several important voyages of discovery.

The voyage of 1501-1502 was the most important, because it convinced Vespucci it was a “new world” they had discovered—not Asia. And, that is one of the key differences between Christopher Columbus and Amerigo Vespucci. Columbus always believed that he had reached the Indies. 

Amerigo Vespucci took a leap of faith and determined he’d reached a new continent, one unknown in Ptolemaic geography.

The second difference between Amerigo Vespucci and Christopher Columbus is Vespucci penned a series of letters and books detailing his travels. In his letters Vespucci proclaimed he discovered a new world, one that he named Mundus Novus.

In his pamphlet on the subject Vespucci wrote, “I have found a continent more densely peopled and abounding in animals than our Europe or Asia or Africa, and, in addition a climate milder and more delightful than in any other region known to us…We knew that land to be a continent and not an island both because it stretches forth in the form of a very long and unbending coast, and because it is replete with infinite inhabitants.”

His descriptions of the natives they encountered were quite detailed down to their marriage customs, sex lives, eating habits, and daily activities. In another of his letters Vespucci wrote, “…they eat little flesh except human flesh…they are so inhuman that they outdo every custom (even) of beasts; for they eat all their enemies whom they kill or capture.”

Many historians insist much of Vespucci’s letters and books were fabricated or written by others, but this much is true: Vespucci’s books became bestsellers all over Europe. They sold better than the works of Columbus, and were much more popular.

The end result is Mundus Novus, or the new world, became Amerigo’s land, or America.

And, that’s the story of how America got its name.

John Cabot and His Three Sons
from The New England Magazine - Feb. 1898
Of course, there is a conflicting claim.

Alfred Hudd, an amateur historian, presented a theory in 1908 that John Cabot was the first explorer to reach North America. Hudd says Cabot sailed past Iceland in 1497 in search of new fishing grounds for Bristol merchants shut out of the Icelandic fishing trade since 1475 when the King of Iceland banned foreign fisherman from fishing in his country’s waters.

According to Hudd, John Cabot sailed to Newfoundland in 1497 on the ship Matthew provided by his patron Richard Amerike (AKA Ameryk).

On that voyage Cabot mapped the coastline between Nova Scotia and Newfoundland. And, by custom, he further assumed Cabot would have named the new found lands after his patron. Thus, Amerike or Ameryk was twisted into America, and he is the actual namesake of America, not Amerigo Vespucci.

The only evidence Hudd presented to support his theory was a passing glance at a lost manuscript he’d seen years before, an early calendar of local events. Supposedly it recordded that on June 24th, 1497, “the land of America was found by merchants of Bristol” in a Bristol ship, the Matthew.
The only problem is the evidence was supposedly destroyed in a subsequent fire.

That theory received a new breath of life in 2006 in The Book of General Ignorance. Like Hudd’s book the authors claim Cabot mapped the shorelines between Nova Scotia and Newfoundland in 1497, ten years before Martin Waldseemüller published his map, and four years before Amerigo Vespucci made his first voyage to the new world.

Sketch Map of John Cabot's voyages in  1497
from The New England Magazine - Feb. 1898
Again, no proof is offered the new land was called America, just the theory that John Cabot would have named any discoveries after his patron.

So there you have it.

America was either named after Amerigo Vespucci because an obscure mapmaker read an account of his voyages and later mapmakers accepted the name, or it was named after a Bristol merchant who sent an expedition in search of new fishing grounds.

At this late date we may as well flip a coin to make the final decision. Heads Amerigo Vespucci, tails Richard Amerike.

Excerpt from my upcoming book History Bytes: 37 People, Places, and Events that Shaped American History

Wednesday, April 8, 2015

Christopher Columbus - Original Discover of America, or Late to the Party?

Parmigiano portrait of Columbus
(from  Christopher Columbus: His Life,
His Work, His Remains - 1904)
One fact we’re all sure of as kids is “Christopher Columbus sailed the ocean blue in 1492.” His destination was the orient. Instead he sailed head on into America landing at Hispaniola (present day Haiti).

That’s what we’ve been taught for hundreds of years. Hell! We even created a special day just to celebrate his discoveries.

Recent scholarship, however, tells a different story about who the actual discoverer of America was.

If the truth be told, Columbus was late for the party.

The actual discoverers may have been the ancient Phoenicians who are supposed to have sailed to America as early as two thousand years ago. Mark McMenamin contends the images on a Phoenician gold coin dating from 350 BC show a horse with a tiny map of the world on it. And, you guessed it—America is pictured in that map. Another piece of evidence is credited to a Sicilian historian, Diodorus, writing in the first century BC, “…in the deep off Africa is an island of considerable size…The Phoenicians had discovered it by accident after having planted many colonies throughout Africa.”

St. Brendan is an Irish monk who legend has it voyaged to America as early as the sixth century. Of course, Brendan wasn’t looking for America either. He assumed he could sail his way to paradise, and discover heaven on earth. What he found instead was an island so big after forty days of walking he was still unable to cross it. He discovered a “river too wide to be crossed,” a “floating island,” and “an island of fire” that pelted him with rocks.

The best claim to being the original discoverer of the Americas belongs to a Viking sailor named Leif Eriksson. Archaeological evidence suggests the Vikings had a thriving settlement at L’ Anse Aux Meadows in Newfoundland dating back to 1,000 AD.

Before I go further into the story of the discovery, I feel a compelling need to point out—America was never lost, so in reality it never needed to be found. North America was populated by millions of Native Americans when the first discoverers arrived. In their quest for riches it never occurred to them the original inhabitants may have had a claim to the lands they inhabited.

But that’s a story for another book.

Thevet portrait of Columbus
(from  Christopher Columbus: His Life, 
His Work, His Remains - 1904)
Christopher Columbus (born Christopher Colon) is a complex character. On one hand, he was deeply religious and believed God inspired his voyages of discovery. On the other hand, he was incredibly cruel and allowed the wanton massacre of the native races for the amusement of his men.

After meeting the Arawak natives Columbus wrote in his journal, “With fifty men we could subjugate them all and make them do whatever we want.”

Later as governor of Hispaniola, Columbus set a quota for native workers. If they did not bring him the set amount of gold dust, their hands were chopped off and tied around their necks. Then they were left to wander and suffer until they bled to death. It is recorded that 10,000 unfortunate men, women, and children suffered this fate.

And that is only the start of the atrocities.

Bartolomé de las Casas, traveled with Columbus on his first voyage and later wrote about the atrocities he witnessed on Hispaniola. “They [Columbus’s men] laid Wagers among themselves, who should with a Sword at one blow cut, or divide a Man in two; or which of them should decollate or behead a Man…They snatcht young Babes from the Mothers Breasts, and then dasht out the brains of those innocents against the Rock.”

Most of what we’re taught about Christopher Columbus is incorrect.

Neither Columbus, nor most of the educated world believed the Earth was flat. The ancient Greeks proved the Earth was spherical as early as the sixth century BC. So all that crap your teacher taught you about the risk Columbus took, and how his ships might fall of the edge of the Earth to certain death. That’s all bullshit.

It is true Columbus had trouble finding backers. Portugal, England, and France all turned him down before Spain ponied up the funding for his first voyage. It’s also true on the first voyage Columbus kept two sets of records: one that was accurate, and one that he shared with his men. In the records he shared with his crew Columbus shortened the distance he traveled, in an attempt to quell dissatisfaction and mutiny. The problem was Columbus misestimated the size of the Earth by about twenty-five percent. Much of the reason for this was he didn’t realize that the continents of North and South America existed.

Here’s another fact not commonly talked about. Columbus’s first voyage to America took 43 days. Conditions for his sailors were pure hell. Most of his men went barefoot the entire voyage, and wore the same clothes home that they started the trip with. Rats shared the decks, sleeping quarters, and food with the crew, and everyone was lice infested.

Jovian portrait of Columbus
(from  Christopher Columbus: His Life, 
His Work, His Remains - 1904)
On Christmas Eve 1492 a cabin boy steered the Santa Maria into a coral reef and wrecked it. Because of that incident Columbus was forced to leave thirty-nine men behind when he returned to Spain. They formed the settlement of La Navidad, the first European colony in America.

Over the next ten years Columbus made three more voyages to America. Contrary to common belief, Columbus never set foot on North America, or understood that he had discovered a new continent. For his entire life Columbus held onto the belief he landed in the Orient. The mistaken belief that he had landed in India caused Columbus to name the native inhabitants indios, later Americanized to Indians.

In 1500, Christopher Columbus, who was then serving as governor of Hispaniola, was arrested and brought back to Spain in chains. The charges were cruelty to the native inhabitants, the execution of rebel Spanish colonists, and mismanagement of the colonies. After a short trial he was found not guilty, and the only real consequence was he lost the governorship of Hispaniola. Whatever, the Spanish crown thought of the charges leveled against Columbus it couldn’t have taken them too seriously. King Ferdinand financed Columbus’s fourth voyage in 1502.

Late in his life Columbus wrote a controversial book titled The Book of Prophecies. In it he said God directed his explorations, and proclaimed that the end of the world would soon be at hand. Mysteriously, he took credit for it, saying “he was causing it.”

Whatever, can be said of Columbus, his voyages brought about a new age of discovery and growth. He also ushered in an era of unending cruelty, death, and destruction for the native inhabitants. One can’t help wondering if he had treated the natives differently, would there have been a different outcome in the colonization of the new world.

Excerpt from my upcoming book History Bytes: 37 People, Places, and Events that Shaped American History

Tuesday, April 7, 2015

Becoming A Nation of Addicts

True, or false?

Back in the late 1800’s and early 1900’s you could walk into the corner drug store and buy a do it yourself druggie kit complete with a hypodermic needle, and vials of opium and morphine? The original formula for Coca-Cola™ contained real cocaine? Bayer Pharmaceuticals aggressively marketed heroin beginning in 1899 touting it as a cure for headaches, tuberculosis, menstrual cramps, and more?

True, true, and true again.

Let’s try another one.

Drugs weren’t a real problem in America until the 1960’s. It was that damned Rock ‘N Roll music that spawned the Hippie movement, marijuana, LSD, cocaine, and heroin addiction. Before the 1960’s Americans didn’t do drugs, right?

Wrong again!

Here’s the real scoop on addiction in America.

Historians can trace the use of marijuana as far back as the writings of Chinese Emperor Shen Nung somewhere around 2700 BC.  According to the Emperor marijuana was used as a cure for rheumatism, gout, malaria, and even absent mindedness.

The Spanish conquistadores brought cannabis to America with them in the early 1500’s, and records from the Jamestown Colony in 1611 show cannabis was the second largest crop grown there next to tobacco. Hemp was one of George Washington’s largest cash crops at his Mount Vernon plantation.

For nearly 150 years patent medicines were used and abused by a large portion of the American public. One of the most popular of these medications was laudanum. Laudanum was a potent mixture of 90% alcohol and 10% opiates. Famous laudanum abusers include Edgar Allan Poe and Mary Todd Lincoln.

Laudanum was sold over-the-counter as a cure for almost any ailment out there—cramps, headaches, aches, pains, you name it. Women were especially susceptible to laudanum addiction as it was a common prescription for female problems, menstrual cramps, and depression.

Morphine was created somewhere around 1810 and was named after the Greek god Morpheus (the god of dreams) because it took people away to a dreamlike state. Morphine soon became the miracle drug of its day and doctors used it to treat severe pain.

 In wartime America morphine was a quick fix for soldiers who had their arms and legs shot off. It offered quick relief from the pain, and was supposed to be “non-addictive.” But as doctors soon discovered, that wasn’t the case.  Morphine users needed larger and more frequent doses to get the same degree of relief.

After the Civil War morphine became the drug of choice in America. It’s estimated two to five percent of the adult population was addicted to morphine in the post war years between 1865 and 1900.

Bayer Pharmaceuticals, a German company, began marketing Heroin in November of 1898. To be fair they didn’t create heroin.

Charles Romley Alder Wright, an English chemist was the first to synthesize heroin in 1874, but he didn’t do anything with his creation.

Bayer recognized the medicine’s potential after conducting tests on animals and some of their employees. Not surprisingly, their employees loved heroin. The consensus was it made them feel like super heroes.

The biggest market for heroin was as a cure for morphine addiction. By the late 19th century so many doctors had prescribed morphine that America was a nation of morphine addicts. It was as easy to buy as aspirin is today. Every corner drug store sold morphine kits.

Bayer touted heroin as a “non-addictive” substitute for morphine. They also promised the drug could cure tuberculosis, cough, colds, cancer, mental illness, old age, you name it. At the turn of the century you could walk into a store and buy heroin chewing gum, heroin cough drops, heroin cough syrup, and heroin pills. It didn’t matter if you were a man, woman, or child, as long as you had the required payment.

The only problem was as early as 1899 studies confirmed heroin was more addictive than morphine. In 1899 Horatio Woods, Jr. noted heroin was addictive, and to get the same effect patients needed stronger doses. Two other early studies noted similar effects about heroin use. One was a 1903 report in the Alabama Journal of Medicine, and the other a 1911 study in the Kentucky Medical Journal.

Surprisingly enough at the height of this controversy the American Medical Association (AMA) gave its blessings to heroin in 1907.

After continued complaints about heroin addiction Bayer gave into public pressures and stopped selling heroin in 1913.

Coca-Cola© was created in the 1880’s by John Pemberton, a Civil War veteran. The original version contained real cocaine and was sold as a patent medicine. It was touted as a cure for morphine addiction, headaches, impotence, and similar diseases.

Relief from pain and suffering cost just five cents a bottle.

Rumor has it the company removed most of the active cocaine ingredients in 1904, and all traces were removed in 1929.

The big news today concerns legalizing medicinal and recreational uses of marijuana. What most people forget is for most of America’s past marijuana was prescribed by doctors as a cure for neuralgia, gonorrhea, headaches, asthma, bronchitis, and menstrual cramps. There’s even some talk George Washington used it to relieve the pains he experienced from toothaches.

Recreational use of marijuana wasn’t considered a major problem until the early 1900’s. Mexican’s fleeing the revolution in 1910 started the trend here. Because of its ties to illegal immigrants lots of research was done that tied marijuana use to crime, violence, and other deviant behaviors. By 1930 twenty-nine states passed laws banning marijuana usage.

In 1936 French director Louis Gasnier released the film Reefer Madness. The movie was a cautionary tale about the effects of marijuana use on high school students. One student gets high and runs a pedestrian over. Later he is told the person died. Other scenes depict students driven to rape, suicide, and madness because of marijuana use. In the final scene the school principle warns other student not to let these things happen to them.

The next year Congress passed the Marijuana Tax Act which effectively criminalized marijuana use. The Boggs Act in 1952 and the Narcotics Control Act of 1960 made a first offense for marijuana use punishable by a minimum sentence of two to ten years in prison and a fine of up to $20,000.

In 1970 Congress repealed the minimum sentences imposed for marijuana use, and in the following decades many states decriminalized marijuana usage completely.

So the next time you’re watching the evening news with grandma and she tells you how much better it was in the old days because they didn’t have all of these temptations—tell her, “not so.”