Saturday, June 30, 2012

Sioux Indian Massacres of 1862

By Adrian J. Ebell.

Court House of the military commission
Let us take one of the lines of railroad that, after crossing the rolling prairies of Wisconsin or the flat plains of Illinois, reach a ter­minus on the banks of the Mississippi - let it be the latter. After a ride over a track converging to a focus behind us from its unbroken straightness, we are puffed and steamed into Fulton. Don't be in a hurry to get on, for if the steam­boat agent told you that the packet would be up to-morrow morning, you may look for it about twelve hours later. First a shriek, next a dense black smoke, and then a floating island, loaded with men, women, children, horses, boxes, bar­rels, boats, coils of rope, piles of wood, bundles, and bandboxes, turns the bend of the river and glides to the edge of the warehouse. Be quick, and don't obstruct the gangway, lest you be jostled into the river by the porters. An­other shriek, a few puffs and groans, a huge splashing, and the leviathan is again in motion, steaming its way up the current until, passing prairies stretching away to the foot of the Black Hills, Indian mounds, timber-rafts, flat-boats, villages which expect to become cities, we at last reach St. Paul.

Friday, June 29, 2012

Boy Scouting in 1912 – What It Really Is


“Be prepared," the motto of the Boy Scout) signifies fully the purpose of the scout move­ment as it is being grafted from the parent English stock, where it first took shape, to that more live and adaptable, but perhaps less sturdy shoot, the Amer­ican boy. Whether it is to be ready in will and training to help an old lady safely across a busy crossing: to give "first aid" to an injured companion; or to repel an invasion by a hostile nation, the American youth may well take as his slogan, "Be Prepared." This does not moan merely gaining a fund of informa­tion from leader, book and nature, but unconsciously developing a resourceful­ness which will always stand him instead, and which our average city-bred boy lacks to a great degree.

Africa Building the Cape to Cairo Railroad

By W. T. Stead

Train ford across the Shashi River
Last year, at St. Petersburg, when I was talking to Herr Rothstein, he suddenly surprised me by an observation on the secret forces which appear to dominate the ac­tions of men. Herr Rothstein, although but little heard of outside Russia, is one of the dozen notable personalities who influence the policy of that great empire. He is a Jew, and a German Jew. But he is Monsieur Witte's Jew; and as the financial adviser of the Imperial Finance Minister, he is a man of mark as well as a man of wealth, a man of influence, and a man of power. But although knowing and respecting him as financier and as statesman, I was hardly prepared for the philosophical observation which fell from his lips on the subject of the great transcon­tinental line which Russia is building across northern Asia.

Thursday, June 28, 2012

Knox College, Galesburg, Illinois

By Madame Blanc (Th. Bentzon)

Knox College from the baseball field
We have yet to become acquainted with co-educational colleges, stranger to our eyes than all the others. It is almost exclusively to the West that one must go to find them. A man of high position in the Bureau of Education spoke to me en­thusiastically of the results, from the beginning to the end, of studies pursued under this plan, which in France has recently been the sub­ject of so many earnest discus­sions, where, however, it could not pos­sibly be estab­lished without a complete change in cus­toms and man­ners.

Queen Victoria’s Yacht The Victoria and Albert

BY Mrs. M. Griffith

Queen Victoria's Yacht - The Victoria and Albert
The Victoria and Albert is a paddle vessel of 2,470 tons, built by Her Majesty's Government and launched from Pembroke Dock in 1855. Her dimen­sions are: extreme length, 336ft. 4in; breadth of deck, 40ft; displacement in tons, when deep, 2,390 tons.

Her engines make twenty-one revolutions a minute, and are supplied by four boilers, with six furnaces to each. It takes about six tons of coal to get up steam, and about three tons an hour to keep her at full speed. Highest indicated horse-power, 2,400.

Her Majesty the Queen made her first cruise in her on July 12th, 1855. 

Wednesday, June 27, 2012

Light Houses of the United States

By Charles Nordhoff

Light House at Cleveland, Ohio - Lake Erie
The first act of Congress relating to light-houses was passed August 7, 1789. It pro­vided that "all expenses which shall accrue from and after the 15th day of August, 1789, in the necessary support, maintenance, and repairs of all light-houses, beacons, buoys, and public piers, erected, placed, or sunk before the passing of this act, at the entrance of or within any bay, inlet, harbor, or port of the United States, for rendering the navigation thereof easy and safe, shall be defrayed out of the Treasury of the United States."

Seven months later, March 26, 1790, the same words were re-enacted, but with a proviso that "none of the said expenses shall continue to be so defrayed by the United States after the expiration of one year from the day aforesaid, unless such light-houses, beacons, buoys, and public piers shall in the meantime be ceded to and vested in the United States by the State or States respectively in which the same lie, together with the lands and tenements thereunto belonging, and together with the jurisdiction of the same."

St. Paul Disaster – Cherry, Illinois

By Edith Wyatt

Chart showing underground works of the St. Paul Mine
Cherry, Illinois, is a small, flat town of the drab and dun frame houses of Scotch, English, Ger­man, French, Irish, Lithuanian, Polish, Scandinavian, and Italian mine-workers. Miners are the rovers of the deep of the lands of the earth as sailors are the rovers of the deep of its seas.

The town is six years old. It lies on the bare brown prairie, divided by a main street of saloons and small stores. A square brick schoolhouse, and two churches, one Roman Catholic and the other Congregational, stand at one end; beyond the other end rise the gray rock-dump and the chimneys and shaft-towers of the St. Paul Mine. In the daytime most of the male population of the town lives underground.

Tuesday, June 26, 2012

First Montessori School in America Miss Anne E George

By Miss Anne E. George

Miss Anne E. George, the author of the following article, is Dr. Montessori's first American pupil, and the first teacher to apply the Montessori method in the United States. Before going to Italy to study with Dr. Montessori, Miss George had been for five years a primary teacher in the Chicago Latin School, and before that a teacher in the New York Military Academy at Cornwall and in the Roland Park School at Baltimore. Since the Montessori method began to attract the attention of American educators, the question most frequently asked has been whether the system can be applied to the education of American children. Miss George's experiment is of especial interest in its bearing on this question.

My interest in the Montessori system was the natural outcome of my ex­perience as a primary teacher. It had been my good fortune to work in schools where the fundamental Montessori idea, that of mental liberty, of de­velopment from within, was a ruling principle.

Mormons – Nauvoo and the Desert

Mormon Temple at Nauvoo, Illinois
Among the many extraordinary chap­ters in the history of the Nineteenth Century, none is more incredible and cu­rious than the rise and progress of Mor­monism. The creed of the Latter Day Saints, as they style themselves, is not, indeed, more absurd and ridiculous than that of some other delusions; but their existence was brief, and they are now al­most forgotten; while the imposture of Smith and his associates is still successful, and represented by missionaries in almost every state throughout the world.

It has been observed with some reason, that had a Rabelais or a Swift told the story of the Mormons under the vail of allegory, mankind would probably have entered a protest against the extravagance of the satirist. The name of the mock hero, his own and his family's ignorance and want of character, the low cunning of his accomplices, the open and shameless vices in which they indulged, and the extraordinary success of the sect they founded, would all have been thought too obviously conceived with a view to ludi­crous effects. Yet the Mormon movement has assumed the condition of an important popular feature, and after much suffering and many reverses, its authors have achiev­ed a condition of eminent industrial pros­perity. In scarcely more than twenty years the company, consisting of the im­postor and his father and brother, has increased to half a million; they occupy one of the richest portions of this continent, have a regularly organized government, and are represented in the Congress of the United States. With missions in every part of the country, in every capital of Europe, in Mecca, in Jerusalem, and among the islands of the Pacific and the Indian Oceans, all of whom are charged with the duty of making converts and gathering them to the Promised Land of Deseret, they must very soon have a popu­lation sufficiently large to claim admission as a State of the Union, and perhaps to hold the balance of power in its affairs.

United States Naval Academy at Annapolis, Maryland

by Allan D. Brown

Officers Row at U S Naval Academy
This institution, as important to the navy as is West Point to the army, is of com­paratively recent origin. Its germ existed for many years, in the shape of instruction given to midshipmen on board of cruising ships; but it was not until about 1840 that this instruction was at all systematized, and given "a local habi­tation and a name." At that time the govern­or of the Naval Asylum at Philadelphia, assist­ed by several professors, was charged with the duty of instructing such midshipmen as were on shore in the various branches of their profession. With the aid of the instruction thus given the midshipmen were enabled to pass their exami­nations, and the department was also enabled to raise the standard of proficiency beyond what it had been.

Monday, June 25, 2012

Building the White Pass & Yukon Railway

By W. A. Croffut

First train to arrive at Porcupine Hill
Of all the industrial auxiliaries which the closing century has seen set up on the American continent the railroad just finished from Alaskan tide­water into the valley of the great Yukon is the boldest and most diffi­cult, and promises to be the most useful. A year ago the gold besprinkled Yukon water-shed was accessible only to the hardy mountaineer and at the cost of much money, immense labor and serious peril. Of all those who ven­tured up the Pacific through the Alexandria archipelago and Lynn Canal as far as Skaguay and Dyea at least a quarter turned back intimidated and dis­heartened, for in front of them loomed the precipitous coast range, with the terrible Dead Horse Trail, on the one hand, and on the other, only five miles north, the Chilkoot Trail from Dyea, even more terrible, with its dreaded avalanches and its cemeteries of numerous dead at Sheep Camp.

To cross the divide was at the risk of limb and life, for it involved hitching along a narrow and insecure shelf through a dark defile over a turbulent river and climbing rocky walls that defied almost any creature not armed with claws. In Chilkoot Pass, back of Dyea, several scores of adventurous Argo­nauts had been buried beneath the tremendous slides of ice and rock from the summit, and the Indian trail from Skaguay over White Pass was popu­lous with buzzards feasting on the carcasses of a thousand horses which perished there in a single autumn.      

Sunday, June 24, 2012

Abolition of the Whipping Post in Delaware

By Bianca Adam Miller

Whipping post and pillory in Delaware
The approaching abolition of the whipping - post by the Delaware legislature will align that State with modern civilization, and prompts a retro­spective glance over the role which this relic of barbarism has played in history. Prior to the nineteenth century the prac­tice of punishing criminals by whipping was a political institution of great an­tiquity. It prevailed in its pristine vigor all through the middle ages, as a penalty both in the army and navy of all civilized nations. It was continued until a very few years ago, as an indispensable ex­pedient for enforcing discipline among common sailors, and the practice survived in countries where negro slavery pre­vailed, as a necessary preventive of sheep and chicken stealing.

Prior to our Revolution a whipping-post stood in Philadelphia at the south­east corner of Third and Market streets. They were also to be found in most other American cities at that time. The pillory which usually accompanied the whipping of criminals was regarded as a species of public entertainment. The rabble evinced such pleasure in pelting the culprits with eggs, vegetables and clods, that Watson, in his historical annals of Philadelphia, declares that inasmuch as these punish­ments were inflicted only on market days, the price of eggs was then systematically higher than common.

National Deaf Mute College at Kendall Green

By Sarita M. Brady

National Deaf Mute College at Kendall Green
The aim of this article is to sketch faithfully, if briefly, the history of an institution which, aesthetically con­sidered, is the highest expression of a noble philanthropic impulse, yet young among us, and which is, practically viewed, the means of restoring to society many val­uable members.

In the year 1855 there appeared in Wash­ington a man professing great zeal in char­itable work, who announced his purpose to open a school for the deaf-mute and blind children of the District. Being, like most reformers, as poor in purse as he was rich in promise, he interested several in­fluential patrons, hired a house in the then solitary northwest section of the city, and gathered there all the afflicted chil­dren he could find, principally from among the poor classes. He pursued his way un­disturbed for some time, but gradually horrible stories grew current about cruel­ties suffered by those poor little waifs, and the rumor reaching Amos Kendall, who had been deeply interested in the scheme from the first, he went to work 

Igorotte Head-Hunters of Northern Luzon

By David P. Barrows

Group of head hunters in Luzon
There is one considerable element in the popula­tion of Luzon that has received comparatively little attention from the Army and the Insular Administration, and consequently has not evoked the notice of the American public. This is the great body of mountain tribes, best known under the title of Igorrotes. All in all, there are probably over 300,000 of them in Northern Luzon alone, a considerably larger number than the total of all American Indians within the territory of the United States. These tribes were never more than imperfectly subject to Spain, although during the closing years of that country's rule in this archipelago the question of their subjection and Christianization took important rank among the colony's problems and efforts of administration. Eleven admin­istrative districts, the so-called "politico-military commandancias," were organized in Northern Luzon. These districts were put in charge of a Span­ish officer, usually of the rank of cap­tain, with a force of regular infantry or of the Guardia Civil. Quartels, con­vents, churches, prisons and infirmaries were built, and wide, well-graded trails were constructed through the moun­tains from post to post. No less than twenty-six Spanish friars of the Domi­nican and Augustinian orders under­took the effort of Christianization, a work which, in the end, proved abso­lutely fruitless. With the exception of a few districts, which have been re­organized by the Civil Government, these commandancias stand to-day abandoned. The trails have overgrown with cogon and jungle; most of the buildings have been destroyed, although here and there may still be found a con­vent or mission, sometimes containing the vestments, church service and li­brary of the missionary, who fled with the Spanish soldiery as they retreated. The few pronounced converts have re­lapsed into paganism and the warring tribesmen have fallen again upon one another with a passion for treacherous battle that was seemingly whetted by the brief check to their warfare occa­sioned by the presence of Spanish soldiery.

New York Institution For Instruction of the Deaf And Dumb

By Mary Barrett

New York School For Instruction of the Deaf and Dumb
On the eastern bank of the Hudson, in that part of Manhattan Island known as Washington Heights, stands the New York Institution for the Instruction of the Deaf and Dumb. This school, now in its fifty-fourth year, has grown to be the largest and probably the most complete establish­ment of its kind in the world.

Leaving the city by way train on the Hudson River Railroad from Thirtieth Street, we stop at the station in One Hundred and Fifty-Second Street, which is also called Carmansville. A pleasant drive of half a mile brings us to the eastern entrance of the grounds. It is now some nineteen years since the school was removed from its for­mer location in Fiftieth Street to this spot. With prudent forethought, ample grounds were then secured at a comparatively small expense, thirty-seven and a half acres hav­ing been purchased for not much over one hundred thousand dollars. Since that time the value of real estate in the upper part of the island has advanced so much that nine and a half acres of this land were sold in May, 1870, for two hundred and sixty-three thousand dollars. The sum thus realized frees the institution from debt, and enables it to make certain long-desired improvements.

Gelele, King of Dahomey - Amazon’s

Gelele, King of the Amazons
Captain Richard P. Burton, who is determined to see as much of Africa as is possible to an enterprising traveler, visited Abo­mey, the famous capital of Gelele, King of Da­homey, during the spring of the present year, 1864. He saw the Amazons; he saw the blood of the sacrifices, and stumbled over the skulls of the slain; he talked with the King; he was witness to the horrors and the meanness, the puerility and ferocity, the brutality and the po­liteness, as he says, of this African Emperor.

He was honored with the commission of Am­bassador from the British Government to this mighty potentate, and carried with him, as presents, "one forty-feet circular crimson silk dam­ask tent, with pole complete," which the mighty Gelele turned up his snub nose at; "one richly-embossed silver pipe, with amber mouth-piece," which the King could not smoke out of;" two richly-embossed silver belts, with lion and crane raised in relief, in morocco cases; two silver and partly-gilt waiters, in oak case," of which the Abomeyans had but a poor opinion;" one coat of mail and gauntlets," of the wrong size and too heavy.

Miss Jessie Field, Page County Iowa School Superintendent

By W. K. Tate

Miss Jessie Field,
Page County Iowa School Superintendent
It was my privilege recently to spend two days with Miss Jessie Field, County Superintendent of Education in Page County, Iowa, in an endeavor to discover the secret of the reputa­tion that her schools have attained among the country schools of the United States. I found it in Miss Field herself, and in the application of her motto. "We must teach a country child in terms of country life."

Page County lies off the beaten travel routes, on the Missouri line in southwestern Iowa, and Clarinda, the county seat, is somewhat hard to reach. As our train moved leisurely through the fertile, rolling valley I saw everywhere the signs of rural prosperity. The homes and farm buildings were comfortable and attractive, the roads were fair, and the rural telephone was universal. The shocks of corn, the harrowed fields ready for the wheat crop, the hay stacks, the barrels of apples under the trees that were being stripped of their red and golden burden, and the bluegrass pastures with their droves of cattle, hogs, 4nd sheep, told a story of intelligent, diversified farming.

Saturday, June 23, 2012

How Indian Baskets Are Made Pomo Indians

By Helen M. Carpenter

Indian method of weaving baskets
Of the original Indian tribes, perhaps least is known of the Pomos, of north­western California. According to legend­ary history they were created in Be-lo-ki (Oat Valley, now called Potter Valley). The food appointed for their use was fur­nished by the Coyote (God) from a conical, watertight basket; to this they fell heir.

Beginning life with a piece of divine workmanship for a copy, it is not to be wondered at that to-day the world holds no more proficient workers in the art of basket-making.

Unlike the nomads of the north and south, the Pomos have peacefully enjoyed the seclusion which the little mountain-encircled spot affords; plodding on through uneventful lives, doing what is positively necessary to their being, and devoting much time to sociability. The weaving of baskets is done more as a pleasant pastime than as labor, progressing slowly at odd intervals, much like a lady's piece of embroidery. The work is confined almost entirely to women of middle age.

Friday, June 22, 2012

Civil War Plans For National Cemeteries

By James. S Russling

Plan of the Gettysburg Cemetery
The war for the Union is over. Our sur­viving veterans are once more among us, and the country tenders them its gratitude and homage. We meet them in all the high­ways and by-ways of life, bronzed of feature, and a little stiff and precise, perhaps, from the pursuit of arms; but there is that in the glance of their eye and firmness of tread that speaks of work well done, and the people welcome them to their hearths and homes as the crowned heroes of the age. Society, without distinction of clique or party, unites to do them honor.

Our Government, with all its multiplied bur­dens and cares, and though struggling for very existence, does not seem to have forgotten its duty in this regard in our late war, though, in common with other governments, it seems to have omitted it in all previous ones. Com­mon burying-grounds, indeed, appear always to have been kept at the various posts and forts where our troops were stationed, and those who died thus in garrison have doubtless been well cared for; but those who fell in battle, whether in the Revolutionary struggle in the second con­test with Great Britain, or in the Mexican and Indian wars, seem to have been hastily interred on the spot where they fell, and that was the last the nation knew or seemed to care for them. At all events we may safely affirm that nothing approaching to the dignity of national respect or national care appears ever to have been manifested afterward. This has struck us as fairly remarkable, all things considered; and we did not suppose that there had been such a total neglect of our national duty in this respect until we came to inquire into the facts for the purposes of this paper. But our record in this matter, as well as in so many others, promises soon materially to improve.

Thursday, June 21, 2012

Making a Treaty with King Menelik of Abyssinia

By Robert P Skinner
Menelik II, King of Kings of Abyssinia
When the President's intention of sending an official mission to Ethiopia was announced in the summer of 1903, vague and curious views of its purpose prevailed everywhere. It should have occasioned no surprise, either in America or in Abyssinia. The United States has main­tained friendly official relations with a number of small powers with which we have no com­merce, but has had none with Ethiopia, where for years we had profited by a flourishing trade. In the main, however, comment was friendly and encouraging, though when I found myself on the Red Sea coast, as chief of the mission, directed to establish official relations there my errand took on mys­terious importance. And as I persisted in talking about cottons, tariffs and plain facts interesting only to plain people, the American mission became more incomprehensible than ever. But whatever people may have thought, politeness surrounded us from the 17th of November, when we landed at Djibouti, the capital of the French Somaliland coast, until we said good-by and began our journey homeward.

Necessity for a coaling station created Djibouti. With the public works came the French merchant, the railroad and a "boom." When the railroad had pushed its wind­ing length 125 miles across the desert, Djibouti resumed its status as a port of call for numerous African steamer lines, and waited, as it is still waiting, for the great expected development of Ethiopia. When that development comes, the French capital will be Abyssinia's natural point of contact with the modern world. It was this ex­pectation of a future for Ethiopia, and the partial completion of the railroad to it, that took me to Africa.  Hitherto, trade in general, and American trade in particular, had drifted to Aden, thence across to any one of half a dozen points, where camels took it up and plodded into the interior. The railroad meant evolution and revolution. It was time for a watchful people like ours to be up and doing.

Millionaires of the Pacific Coast

Collis P. Huntington
By George H. Fitch

Balzac, with his royal imagination, never conceived anything more dra­matic, more picturesque, or more essentially unreal than the rise to fortune of the score of men who may be classed among the great millionaires of the Pacific Coast, the enor­mously rich men who will "cut up," to use an expressive phrase, for more than twenty millions Balzac reveled in millions as a miser gloats over his golden hoard, and he endowed many of his characters with the generous hand of the novelist; but he dealt in francs, not dollars, and the bourse specu­lators and the great financial schemes that he loved to describe pale into insignificance before the fortunes and business operations of the half-dozen men of the Pacific Coast, who, in mining and railroads, have made fortunes that would have been called royal even in the days of Caesar and Imperial Rome.

Nowhere in this country, outside of the oil regions of Pennsylvania, have vast for­tunes been gained in so short a time as in California and Nevada. The wealth of Girard, Stewart, Astor, Vanderbilt, was laboriously and slowly gathered, when com­pared with the sudden leap to fortune of the railroad and bonanza kings of California. In its rapid development, its enormous profits, and its crushing monopoly, the Southern Pacific Company is only to be compared to the Standard Oil Company. Both have been built up by men with a genius for managing vast enterprises, but the leaders in both have no more bowels for small com­petitors than the ghost of old Marley that Scrooge saw on that famous Christmas Eve. There is no standard of comparison for the Bonanza mines of the Comstock Lode that within five years lifted four men above the twenty million limit and added four hundred millions to the world's wealth.

Wednesday, June 20, 2012

Joachim Vincent Pecci, Pope Leo XIII

By Henry Sedgwick, Jr.

Pope Leo XIII
The beginning of the next pontificate and the close of that which has just come to an end mark an epoch in the history of the Roman Catholic Church. Leo XIII was crowned in 1878; since that time the great material superiority of England, Germany and the United States over the Latin nations has become patent to the world. A church that claims to be universal and aspires to be a great factor in modern civiliza­tion, in order to achieve success, must be more than tolerated in those three countries. It may well be that the Latin nations will con­tinue to play an important part in the world's history; but the more they recognize the material superiority of people of Teutonic stock, the more they will imitate them, and not in purely economic ways only, but also in matters which bear indirectly on material progress; they will follow them in their behavior toward the Roman Catholic Church, paring and clipping down its power where they can. To save itself in the South, as well as to restore itself in the good opinion of the North, the Church must in some way win the confidence and respect of the liberal thinkers of the North, for they guide the liberal thinkers of the South. As a leader in the work of adapting the Church to the habits of mind in the North, Leo XIII was in liberal eyes a disappointment. At the time of his election many hopes were entertained that he would infuse liberal life into the Church. He did not do so. He chose to devote himself to the task of strengthening the Church in her old ways; his chief means was a strict alliance with the interests of conservatism and property throughout the world. He accepted at every point the traditional doctrine that the old ways of the Church were right; he did all that he could do to hinder and oppose liberal thought. But it would be unjust, and in great measure irrele­vant, to judge him by the liberal standard, and to say that in so far as he diverged from that standard he was wrong. Liberal idea have prevailed in many countries, but peace, content and happiness do not seem to be their inevitable companions; it may be that Leo XIII better served the interests of Christendom in strengthening the old machin­ery of the Church than if he had attempted to bring her into harmony with liberal ideas. A far more just method in which to judge him is to judge him in relation to the actual con­dition of the Church during his lifetime. One man, be he ever so able, cannot do what he would with a body like the Roman Church; he may modify it a little, he may mend it a little, or mar it, but make a radical change he cannot.

Inventor George Westinghouse

By Theodore Nevin

George Westinghouse
One day, many years ago, Mr. George Westinghouse happened to see a collision between two freight-trains that was caused by the ineffectiveness of the hand-brakes then in use. He wondered how trains could be stopped more quickly, and he set to work to invent a device to do it. He decided that the brake must be worked from the engine, since the engineer is the first to see any danger. He tried chains, but they would not do. Reading of the use of com­pressed air for driving drills in the Mount Cenis Tunnel, he experimented with this form of power. His planning and designing were begun all over again, because compressed air required new apparatus. He made drawings of an air-pump and a brake-cylinder and valves, and from these drawings he con­structed an apparatus which he felt worthy of a practical test.

Forthwith he went to the superintendent of the New York Central Railroad and asked him to try it. The superintendent declined. But this disappointment was merely part of the severe schooling through which Mr. Westinghouse passed in his remarkable ca­reer; for, undeterred, he went on urging the merits of his brake: - There was no railroad in the country whose managers and superin­tendents did not know him directly or indi­rectly, but they would not try his device.

Andrew Carnegie - Giving Carnegie Libraries

By Isaac F. Marcosson

Andrew Carnegie
In one of the principal streets of Allegheny, Pa., stands the heroic bronze statue of a man in the simple garb of an American of fifty years ago. Almost within sight is a magnificent structure whose towers rise far above all the adjacent buildings. The statue is that of Colonel Anderson and was reared by Mr. Andrew Carnegie in grateful apprecia­tion of his kindness in opening his library of four hundred books to the young men of the town, which enabled Mr. Carnegie, when a telegraph messenger boy, to obtain access to literature. That kindness made the boy declare that if he became rich he would devote his wealth to the building of libraries for people who could not afford to buy books. The splendid building was the first fulfillment in America of that promise of a fruitful gen­erosity which now extends around the world.

In nearly every English-speaking country to-day there is a Carnegie free public library. Altogether there are 1,352. During every hour of every day some of these libraries are open and in use. In New Zealand they enlighten the Maori; in the crowded East Side of New York City they uplift a congested foreign population; in Ireland they influence a struggling race. Without regard to creed or color, they have everywhere taught the value of high intellectual ideals. They have placed (or will place, when the buildings planned are erected) free reading within the reach of 25,000,000 people, and they repre­sent a total benefaction of more than $40,000,000. No individual has ever con­tributed so much to a single cause or touched so many people. It is the most remarkable public service in the history of philanthropy, and its conduct is as unusual as the person­ality behind it.

Galena Illinois and Its Lead Mines in 1866

Reception of General Grant at Galena, IL - August 18, 1865
The lead-bearing region of what was known as the "Northwest" before the "course of empire" had taken its way still farther north­ward and westward, and which embraced the country where was located the first "discovery" of "lead ore" by the early travelers, afterward known as the "Spanish Mines" of Upper Lou­isiana; subsequently the "Fever River Mines," and still later the lead mines of the Upper Mis­sissippi, is at present substantially embraced in Jo-Daviess and Carroll Counties, Illinois; Dubuque County, Iowa, which included the old "Spanish Mine" of Julien Dubuque; and the counties of Lafayette and Grant, in the State of Wisconsin. This is undoubtedly the richest lead-bearing region in the world, and the ga­lena or sulphuret of lead is of the purest quali­ty known, yielding 86.55 and 13.65 Sulphur in 100 parts. It is true that the mines of late years lost something of their importance, and the quantity of lead produced has percepti­bly decreased. This is accounted for by the un­certainty of the pursuits of mining, and the fact of the great agricultural wealth of the lead region. In many places one may stand in a field bearing upon its surface as large a crop of wheat, corn, or potatoes, as can be produced from an equal area in any place, and hear the miner blasting rock far beneath him. The pursuits of agriculture being so much more certain, though often slower, the mining has in a very considerable degree been abandoned for farming. The land having been all “taken up" is no longer open for "prospecting."

Tuesday, June 19, 2012

The Breakers – Newport Home of Cornelius Vanderbilt

By Montgomery Schuyler

The Breakers – Newport Home of Cornelius Vanderbilt 
Nowhere else in the United States is the growth of wealth and luxury since the civil war so impressively in evi­dence as it is in Newport. Not even in the great cities, for there poverty is also in evidence. There are no signs of a proletariat in the oldest and most famous of our sea-side resorts, nothing but a bour­geoisie and a plutocracy. Even the hack-men have the air more of an indigenous "fierce democratic" than of the imported "lower classes," while the watermen are of a strictly autochthonous and Yankee development. The "fair sea-port town" of Longfellow's poem of a generation ago is still there, with its colonial reminiscences and suggestions. But the poem is obsolete as a representation of the present and most characteristic Newport. That is the Capua upon the Cliffs, inhabited by a race apart which is a strict plutocracy, confining its association to itself and retaining enough of the mercantile spirit, it is reported, to conduct its "fashionable arrangements" in a spirit of strict reci­procity. Only in Newport, for example, are officers of the army and navy not ex officio "in society," and it is only a few years since a foreign Admiral who was entertained "on the Cliffs" expressed wonder that no members of his own pro­fession should have been asked to meet him. The visitor, seeing the equipages of the wealthy "shine like meteors and their palaces rise like exhalations, " is moved to repeat the exclamation of Mrs. Carlyle's servant-girl at sight of the Sistine Madonna, "Lor', mum, how expensive!" A news­paper correspondent, who had written that the summer colony of Newport "devoted themselves to pleasure regardless of ex­pense," was pertinently corrected by the late Colonel Waring, himself a Newporter, who explained that what they really did was to devote themselves to expense re­gardless of pleasure. Of the same appositeness was the remark of a pertinently impertinent bric-a-brac dealer to the cot­tager who had expostulated with him on the monstrous price he charged for an old plate: "Well, you see, nothing is so common in Newport as money. Now this is not common." 

Sunday, June 17, 2012

Trappist Silent Monks of Oka Canada

By Thomas P Gorman

Trappist Monsatery at Oka
"A BIT of French medievalism trans­planted to the North American woods." "A survival of the institutions of the twelfth century." The foregoing are some of the remarks made by visitors to the monastery of the Trappist monks established near Oka, in the province of Quebec, upon a piece of rocky, swampy and apparently worthless land, which no farmer would touch, though it is nearly 200 years since colonization began in the neighborhood. The success of the Trap­pist monks who were expelled from France in 1880 in transforming what appeared to be worthless hills and swamps into smil­ing fields and fruitful gardens is an evidence of what voluntary labor can ac­complish in a short time when the cost of living is reduced to a minimum.

Friday, June 15, 2012

Building the Washington Monument

By Renee Bache

Washington Monument in 1899
George Washington, Pater Patriao, died just one hundred years ago - a fact which gains impressiveness as it is thoughtfully considered. To his memory, in the city named after himself, has been erected the noblest monument in stone ever built by human hands - a ver­itable poem in marble, which appears to symbolize the lofti­ness of the man's soul and the beauty and strength of his character. It is a structure that possesses interest for every pa­triotic American.

It is to be regretted that the art invented by Daguerre had not progressed far enough in the early days of the monument to record the first stages of its building. Later on, when work was recommenced upon the un­sightly stump of the half-finished obelisk, after it had remained an eyesore and a national dis­grace for more than twenty years, the Treasury Department took a number of photographs of it, as the structure advanced toward completion. From the negatives thus produced, which gold untold could not buy, are printed the accompanying pict­ures, or, as they might properly be termed, historical documents.

The stump dates back to 1858, when it was abandoned for lack of funds to continue operations, and up to 1880 the monument remained in this unsightly and melancholy con­dition, so that it came to be believed that the contemplated memorial to the Father of His Country would be permitted by an ungrateful people to rot and fall to pieces without ever being completed. In fact, when work was at length resumed, the frustum was found to have decayed to such an extent that several courses of stone at the top had to be taken off and replaced with fresh material, thus reducing its height considerably below the one hundred and seventy feet at which it had stood for so long. At this stage it is represented in the first of the series of photographs repro­duced herewith, and it will be observed that preparations have been begun, includ­ing the erection of derricks, et cetera, for the task of completing in a proper manner the gigantic shaft.

Henry Clay Frick, United States Steel Corporation

By French Strother

Henry Clay Frick in 1907
In an office on the twelfth floor of the Trinity Building, at in Broadway, New York, sits a short, chubby little man of millions, Mr. Henry Clay Frick. From his desk he can  look across old Trinity churchyard to the offices of the United States Steel Corporation, which is his right bower in the great financial game he plays; or he can step to a window and look down on the crowds surging from Broadway into Wall Street, which is the table upon which the cards are thrown. He is master of some $80,000,000, the "Street" believes; his is the directing will in the United States Steel Cor­poration he is the ally of Mr. E. H. Harriman and Mr. H. H. Rogers; and he is Wall Street's latest mystery. The Street, which is watching him as apprehensively as it watched Mr. Harri­man emerge into prominence, waits in darkness to know what manner of man he is, and the stakes for which he plays. Most men in Wall Street do not know that his office is at 111 Broadway.  The name "S. L. Schoon­maker," which appears on its glass door, is the name of a former partner in the coke business in Pittsburg.

Only twice before has Mr. Frick stood out in the light of publicity before the whole country. Both times he slipped back into the shadow while public interest swept on to less retiring figures, before men realized the signifi­cance of his two appearances. But just now he is beginning again to emerge, this time in the full stature of the powerful financier.

Thursday, June 14, 2012

Indian Education at Hampton and Carlisle

"General Armstrong:
Group of Indian men before education
    "MY FRIEND, - I never saw you, but I have a strong attachment for you. I already wrote you two letters, as you know, but today I have thought of you again.
    "I had two boys big enough to help me to work, but you have them now. I wanted them to learn your language, and I want you to look after them as if they were your boys.
    "This is all, my friend.
is my name, and I shake your hand."

There are many, no doubt, who will smile at the title of this article, much as if it had read, "Education for Buffaloes and Wild Turkeys." Such, however, will be likely to read it, as others will from a more sym­pathetic standpoint. For it is evident that, from one standpoint or another, public interest is excited upon the Indian ques­tion now as perhaps never before.

Tuesday, June 12, 2012

Bombay and the Parsees

Group of Parsee children in Bombay, India
The Parsees, proudly claiming the title of Behendic, Followers of the True Faith, while their Mohammedan persecutors styled them Guebers, or Infidels, arrived on the west­ern coast of Hindostan about one thousand years ago, fugitives from Moslem rage and fanaticism in their native land of Persia. It was an opportune time, when Buddhism was giving way before Brahminism, which latter religion, fourteen hundred years before, had been almost rooted out of the land by the faith it was in turn displacing, at least, in Hindostan, and was ultimately to destroy. But modern Brahminism was a religion of a very different complexion to that brought from the Bactrian plains by the pure Aryan race, as expounded in their Vedas—those books, perhaps the very oldest in the world--older not only than Ho­mer, but than the events which he sings, com­piled almost as long ago as the Exodus, and many of its hymns written while the Israelites were still in bondage on the banks of the Nile. The Rig-Veda plainly asserts, according to a learned Hindu commentator, that "there are only three deities: Surya (the Sun), in heaven; Indra, in the sky; and Agni (Fire), on the earth." Light, in its various manifestations, was the object of that early worship. Bright-haired and golden-handed, the Sun is the giver of abundance; his ray is called "life-bestow­ing; coming from afar, he is said to remove all sins, and to have power to chase away sickness from the heart, and disease from the body. Golden-haired Agni, however - as light, heat, and fire - called forth the best affections of the Aryan as of the Persian. Indra was a deity of strictly Hindu, or rather Indian origin - a personification of the firmament with its brill­iant, countless stars.

The close affinity between the believers in the Vedas and the exiled fire-worshipers of the Zoroastrean creed is apparent. Both believed that the Sun and Fire were the visible representatives of an incomprehensible Supreme; for Zoroaster taught, as did the Vedas, that the finite mind of man could not grasp the idea of an Infinite, and that the life-giving Sun and all-pervading, all-consuming Fire, were the best types of the Eternal. Thus we read in the Yajur-Veda, translated by Colebrook, the Oriental scholar:

"Fire is That: the Sun is That:
The air, the moon, such too is that pure Brahm....
He prior to whom nothing was born,
And who became all beings."

Sunday, June 10, 2012

Among the Arrapahoe Indians

"He's a puller."
Arrapaho Indians Friday and "A Puller""He's a puller."

"A puller?" - inquiringly.

"Yes, a puller."

I ride on in silence, not wishing to be­tray undue curiosity; but presently I ask, "Friday, what is a puller!"

"A squaw that pulls hair."

Friday is an Arrapaho Indian. Lost when eleven years old, he was found by a party of returning emigrants, taken to St. Louis, and there educated. At twenty-one he returned to his people, over whom, by his unusual attainments and civilization, he soon exercised great in­fluence. At fifty he had relapsed into barbarism. He had forgotten how to read and write, possessed as many squaws as fingers, and was a pander of the vilest description. His knowledge of English facilitated the practice of this vocation at the agency and military posts, and pro­cured him employment as official inter­preter, in which capacity he accompanies me. Like his cannibal yet scarcely more savage prototype, Robinson Crusoe's man, his discovery, fortunate albeit on Friday, caused him to be named after that un­luckiest day of the week. The subject of our conversation is one of his numerous wives, whom a jealous disposition and irascible temper make an unruly help­mate. Because of her small eyes, she is called The-one-who-sleeps.

Gianluigi Fieschi Conspiracy Andrea Doria

Andrea Doria
In the annals of the Genoese Republic there are two prominent characters upon whose relative merits history still hes­itates to pronounce its final award. It would be idle to affirm that Andrea Doria and Giauluigi Fieschi will ever exchange places on the historic page, but in justice to the latter, the vast interval that has separated them hitherto is being sensibly, if not rapidly, diminished. In truth, it would be difficult, other things being equal, to assign any satis­factory reason for branding Fiesco as a traitor for attempting to subvert a government which Doria himself had twice overthrown, and then received the appellation of "Father of his Country! It is not surprising, however, when the reward of a faithful historian was, in not a few in­stances, banishment or assassination, that the earlier Ital­ian annalists who wrote under the co­lossal shadow of Charles V. should have favored the dominant or imperi­al faction, or that subsequent writers and encyclopedists should have found it more convenient to fol­low in the beaten track of their predecessors than to delve amid the dust of musty manu­scripts by way of original research.