Sunday, September 25, 2011

Human Hair Harvest in Brittany Normandy

By Charles Geniaux.

The traffic in artificial hair is a big business. It is interesting in itself, and quite a readable article might be prepared as the result of an inter­view with an extensive dealer in human hair in London or any other great capital. This information, however, is accessible to any journalist who cares to go and get it, and beyond bare mention it forms no part of this paper, which deals rather with the very fountain­head (the joke is not intentional) of this curious industry.

I visited one of the great Paris coiffeurs, and he made the startling statement that "when they reach a certain age - say, forty or fifty years, ­almost all the ladies in Paris use artificial hair, particularly those who wear their hair in twists, or who affect the archaic style. Why," he said, " do you know the price of a single kilogram (over 2lb.) of first class hair - hair that has been sorted, cleaned, and prepared? Well, sir, I do not sell it under a thousand or eighteen hundred francs, according to color, texture, and general beauty.

Thursday, September 22, 2011

How Spirit Wrestlers Came To Canada Russian Doukhobors Universal Brotherhood Christians

By Delevan L. Pierson.

A distinguished American missionary editor tells us all about a most remarkable sect, whose members, persecuted in Russia, recently emigrated to Canada. They eat no meat, have property in common, and offer no resistance to violence. The men refused to serve in the Russian army; hence the persecution. That the Spirit Wrestlers are a brave and hardy race will be evident from the remarkable photo showing the team of women dragging the plough.

It is not an uncommon sight, in some parts of Europe, to see women harnessed with dogs, and drawing carts or canal boats; but it may seem strange that in Christian Canada women drag the plough without even the help of a beast of burden. These women are Doukhoburs, thousands of whom have been driven from Russia by perse­cution, and have been welcomed in Western Canada, where they have been given land and other help to enable them to make a living.

Dance of The Seises Seville Cathedral Spain Holy Week Corpus Christi Immaculate Conception

By Herbert Vivian.

One of the special sources of ridicule in the proceedings of the Salvation Army has been its adoption of the dance as a religious exercise. But, whatever we may think of the par­ticular form it has taken up, we shall only prove our ignorance by seeking to deny that the religious dance has almost as remote an origin as any other form of religious ritual.

Every savage who can boast of any sort of creed includes some kind of dance among his devotions to his deity. The Egyptians, the Romans, the Greeks, all danced, as much as they prayed, in honor of their gods. And, after all, if the Supreme Being is the type of Harmony, and you admit music as an accessory to worship, why exclude the dance? It is certain that the Early Christians took this view. Saint Basil urged his disciples to dance on earth in order to fit themselves for what he conceived was one of the chief occupations of the angels in Heaven. Many bishops used to lead the holy dance around their altars. A tradition, supported by an apocryphal gospel, asserts that, after the Last Supper, the Apostles joined hands and danced round our Lord, the which, ac­cording to Jewish customs, is by no means unlikely.

Artist Artur Louis Halmi

By Winthrop Fox

Five years ago, the "Who's Who" of artistic swelldom, on this side of the Atlantic at least, knew no such name as Artur Louis Halmi. Today, that name is signed to nearly a hundred New York made portraits, mostly of dames, demoiselles, and children of the best social set.

Somewhat less than a score of years back, a wealthy young American with an amateur's taste for art found himself in that Mecca of artistic bohemians - Munich. Like the rest of the world, he saw in the Bavarian capital's fantastic illustrated journal, Jugend, a characteristic pictorial ex­pression of the exuberant younger spirit of the age, particularly the work signed by a new man, under­stood to be a Hungarian, whose illus­trative work was just beginning to attract attention. The young American sought out this exotic genius, and asked to be taken on as a pupil, offering to pay for his lessons at a rate not to be gainsaid. The two had no language in com­mon, and the artist's days were fully occupied. But he needed the money, so finally he said to the Ameri­can, "You might join me at the coffee-house at five, and we'll try sketching together." The plan worked out admirably." The American, having enthusiasm and some natural gift, actually. did acquire, in his three months' sojourn in Munich, a facility at rapid fire sketching which event­ually might have enabled him to qualify as a professional, had necessity so dictated. As it was, he returned home to New York and business.

German Artist Leo Putz Die Scholle

By Christian Brinton

Profes­sor Leo Putz is the most popular painter of the younger generation in Germany. Visitors to Munich, the veritable summer art-capital of Europe, are doubtless familiar with the work of that much discussed group known as "Die Scholle," of which Putz is president, but this is the first time he has been pre­sented to the American public.

Imprisoned in a small cabinet in one of the most interesting museums of Europe, the Munich Alte Pinakothek, is a bright faced faun playing merrily upon his flute. He fills the fore­ground of a typically sylvan landscape dotted with trees and rocks, a smiling patch of sky overhead, and flocks grazing in the distance. The picture, which is by Correggio, one of the most sweetly joyous souls the world has ever known, may, in a sense, be taken as the symbol  of modern Bavarian painting. It is, beyond doubt, the same care free little fellow, and others of his kind, who have piped happiness into the hearts of generations of Munich artists. He strayed blithe­ly across the Alps, bringing with him a mellowness that harks back not alone to sunny Italy but to golden Greece, and inspired the rude Teutons with that passion­ate longing, Sehnsucht, as they themselves call it, for the Southland, which has ever been a characteristic feature of their ternperament. There is, in truth, something fanciful and faunesque to their production, which can be accounted for in no other way. You find the same note alike in the early canvases of the searching and austere Lenbach, the stirring evocations of the Olympian Bocklin, and the sensuous ani­malism of Franz von Stuck. And not only is this spirit visible in art; it has also colored the social and intellectual life of the Bavarian capital. The Munich Kunsstlerfest, or Art­ists' Carnival, at times vividly recalls the freedom and frivolity of former days; while upon the diverting pages of Jugend, you will discover a playfulness which, in essence, is but a survival of paganism.

Tuesday, September 20, 2011

Devil's Corkscrews Badlands of Wyoming Nebraska Rocky Mountains

By Rene Bache.

In that wonderful playground of Nature called the Bad Lands - which might well have been designed for occupancy by communities of ogres and giants, so weird and fantastic are its landscape effects, counterfeiting with rocky spire, minaret, and buttressed fort a vast city of the supernatural - are found the so called Devil's Corkscrews, long regarded by scientific men as a well-nigh hopeless puzzle.

As the adventurous traveler wanders through the strange avenues of this myste­rious region, where everything is on a gigantic scale and man seems a mere pigmy, his eye is caught now and then by a huge spiral column of white stone standing out in relief from the side of a hill, and rising in an exact perpendicular, as if to uphold the rocky masses above. In places, scores of them are seen exposed on the face of a single cliff, always perfectly vertical, and having the appearance of pillars designed in a vanished and extinct school of architecture. Within an area of about 500 square miles in Nebraska there are literally millions of these curious objects, revealed to view by being "weathered out" of the sandstone formation. They are composed of quartz, and every one of them is carved out with a precision that might be expressed by a mathematical formula.

Sunday, September 18, 2011

Palace Homes on Hudson River of New York Gould Stern Rockefeller

By H. G. Warren.

Twenty years ago no American young woman with a proper sense of the fitness of things would have deigned to consider a ro­mance in which the hero or heroine did not dwell in a "palatial residence on the Hudson." But, as a matter of fact, the greater number of modern villas that dot the banks of the Hudson from Riverdale to Dobb's Ferry have been built within recent date. Some, indeed, are in process of erection, and on many, the veneer of recently ac­quired millions is still to be distinguished. With few exceptions these magnificent villas are rarely occupied. They are not homes in the English sense of the word, for a residence of perhaps a month, in the year does not constitute "home life and often times these places remain closed, throughout the entire year.''

Augustin Daly American Theater Manager

By Adelaide Louise Samson. .

For the last thirty years Augustin Daly has been a unique and mighty power in the higher de­velopment of the drama in America. Mr. Daly is not only an idealist and a poet, but he is a man possessing extraordinary executive power and a keen intuition of the likes and dislikes of theatre going people.

Thirty years ago the stage in America had neither local nor European stand­ing. Neither actors nor actresses had an entree into polite society. They were considered a class apart, and this indignity, which they accepted as a matter of course, reacted upon the stage itself, and its social etiquette became more or less lax.

Mr. Daly entered upon his career of theatrical management possessed of a high ideal, not only for the drama itself, but for every detail that could possibly affect a worthy and dignified representation. He regenerated, by the strictest discipline. the manners of the stage; under his supervision the rehearsals were carried on with the strictness and solemnity of public performances; and Mr. Daly, advancing step by step, has gradually, through his own peculiar methods, founded a school of acting whose exponents have won an international reputation for the American drama.

Lillian Russell Actress & Opera Prima Donna

By S. L. Baker.

The latest reports from Berlin bring accounts of the enthusi­astic reception given to Lillian Russell, not only as a professional beauty, but as an artist who for the past fifteen years has been recognized as the best exponent of light opera in America.

That Miss Russell is a beautiful and talented woman none will deny, but if she has retained the affection of the capricious American public for so many years it is because she is also highly intellectual. She has not depended on mere beauty and talent. It is a well­ known fact among professionals that Miss Russell today studies as ear­nestly and assiduously as any pupil at the Conservatory, and for this reason each season shows further progress and flexibility of voice.

Silent Sisters of Anglet L'Abbe Cestac

By Sir George Newnes, Bart.

One of the most ingenious forms of terrible punishment ever inflicted has been that of solitary confinement without opportunity to speak with a living soul.

It sounds the most cruel of all punish­ments, because men and women are gre­garious animals and desire to com­mune with their fellow creatures.

The penalty alluded to is com­pulsory; but here we have in the Silent Sisters of Anglet a voluntary resolve for re­ligious purposes to live together in silence.

Mrs. Reginald De Koven Author and Literary Critic

By Alice B. Carroll.

Mrs. Reginald De Koven, who came into notice by the pub­lication of "A Sawdust Doll," is an interesting type of the modern society woman as she becomes possible through culture, wealth, refined environment, and, beyond all else, through that cer­tain restless introspective qual­ity characteristic of these latter days, which forces womankind, even the most listless, to seek emancipa­tion and individual expression of some kind.

Although Mrs. De Koven had established an en­viable reputation as a literary and dramatic critic in the leading New York and Chicago dailies, and had won the respect of every true lov­er of literature by her brilliant translation of Pierre Loti's" Pe­cheur d'Islond," her first venture as a novelist was made, a little over a year ago, in "A Sawdust Doll."

White House Easter Egg Rolling Contest in 1901

By John Nixon.

It is on Easter Monday that the annual egg-rolling competition, which for many years has been a feature of child life in the national capital, takes place. White and black meet together, under the gracious wing of the President, for the time being, and, in the spacious grounds of the White House, with its background of beauty so familiar to the children and their fathers and fathers for generations before them, a scene of, gaiety and youthful en­thusiasm takes place which, with all due respect for the festivals of children in other lands, may rightly be called unique.

At nine o'clock in the morning the children begin to arrive. At first in twos and threes; then in dozens and scores, and towards midday in hundreds and thousands. From all parts of the big city they come; from the squalid tenements of the colored people and from the palatial residences of the rich. The gathering of Washington's children in the grounds of White House on Easter Monday is as fully representative of the entire community as is the gathering of the grown-up citizens at a Presidential recep­tion on any Friday afternoon.

Millionaire Howard Gould Steam Yacht Niagara Captain Shackford

By Frank Leroy Blanchard.

Yachting in ocean-going steam vessels, the most expensive and, to those who love the sea, the most enjoyable of all forms of amusement, is essentially a millionaire's pas­time. None but the very wealthy can afford to spend from $250,000 to $500,000 for a plaything which at best can be used only a few months in the year, and from $25,000 to $100,000 more annu­ally in keeping her in commission. And yet so large is the number of steam yachts hailing from New York and vicinity that one is inclined to the belief that all of the millionaires of the metropolis are yachtsmen to the man­ner born.

Saturday, September 17, 2011

Big Trees of California Sequoias Redwoods Mariposa Grove Humboldt County Lumbering

By George Dollar.

A German ship named Maria Hackfield was lately dispatched from San Francisco to London with a cross section of a Cali­fornia redwood tree, consigned, it is said, to Mr. William Waldorf Astor. The shipment is reported to be the result of a bet recently made by Mr. Astor, who, at a dinner party, told his English friends some astonishing stories about the size of the redwoods. Mr. Astor wagered that he could procure a cross section of a redwood large enough to form a table for forty guests. This wager will undoubtedly be won with ease. The cross section is 2ft. in thickness, showing the greater diameter of the tree to be 16ft. 6in., and the smaller diameter 14ft. 11in. The circumference is, therefore, about 52ft., which ought to accommodate forty average men without difficulty.

Odd to say, also, this section, notwith­standing its great size, is but a tiny thing, after all. Many redwoods in California measure 60ft. in circumference, and some have measured 75ft. These, again, are outstripped in size by the so ­called "big trees" of the Calaveras and Mariposa groves, the like of which are seen in no other part of the world. Many English people know them only through whisky and wine adver­tisements. The irrepressible ad­vertising agent has, in fact, seized upon the very tree shown on this page, in order that public attention may be strongly drawn to the merits of the juicy Californian grape. Others know of them through frequent visits to the Crystal Palace, where the bark of the grand old "Mother of the Forest," which measured 90ft. in girth and 321ft. in height, has been exhibited for years.

Discovery of Palace & Temple of Nebuchadnezzar at Babylon Dr. Robert Koldewey

By Morris Jastrow, Jr.

During the past three years a party of German explorers has been busy excavating the series of mounds that extends from two to five miles north of the village of Hillah, ­about forty miles to the south of Bag­dad. These mounds cover the remains of the famous city of Babylon, so famil­iar to us all from its associations with Nebuchadnezzar, the destroyer of Jerusa­lem. While the work of the explorers is far from complete, they have already been fortunate enough to discover the exact site of the great palace begun by Naba­polassar, the father of Nebuchadnezzar, and completed by the latter. This edi­fice was famous throughout the ancient world. It is this palace to which the author of the Book of Daniel refers in his story of the mystical handwriting on the wall that foretold the downfall of the great city. In it Cyrus, on his con­quest of Babylon, in the year 538 B.C., took up his official residence, and the same building two centuries later wit­nessed the pathetic death scene of Alex­ander the Great.

Ruskin Co-operative Association Ruskin Tennessee The Coming Natiion Socialism

By Harold J. Shepstone.

A recognized and established Socialistic colony, where all members are equal, where happiness and contentment reign supreme, and peace and goodwill to all is the prevailing sentiment, this sounds like the flight of a writer's imagination; yet such a colony exists. It is known as the Ruskin Co-operative Asso­ciation - a band
of earnest and enthusiastic pioneers, who have endeavored to solve the great social problem by pure co-operation.

This modern Utopia was founded nearly five years ago, and is situated at the extreme edge of a long tract of undulating land, 1,800 acres in extent, in Yellow Creek Valley, in the State of Tennessee. At the present time the colonists number over 250, including women and children. The entire settlement practically live as one great family. It has its own government - by the people. It can boast of its own system of money, a currency not based on gold or silver, but on labor. Every individual member receives the same pay, whether he be president or plough-boy.
We find that the colony owes its inception to a Socialistic organ, The Coming Nation, which was first issued in the last week of April, 1893. The idea of such a colony was entirely pro­posed and organized by this paper, which has always devoted itself exclusively to the cause of labor. It was content, at first, to point out the evils of the competitive system, declar­ing that the working man's only hope was in, the abolition of private property and the found­ing of a commonwealth where a day's labor would be the standard of value. As its circulation increased it began to consider and propose schemes for the establishment of a commonwealth where labor would be king; and in October, 1893, it printed an article, under the title of "A Co-operative Village," in which was given a prospectus or plan for the founding of a colony on the Bellamy principle.

John Cleves Symmes Polar Exploration Symmes Hole

Occasional allusions to what is call­ed Symmes's theory, popularly styled Symmes's Hole, are seen in the press of this country and England. Who Symmes was, and exactly what his theory is, seem to be definitely understood by but few peo­ple. The writer is indebted to Mr. Ameri­cus Symmes, a son of John Cleves Symmes, the author of the theory, for much inter­esting information concerning the man and his hypothesis. The son is a farm­er, and resides near Louisville, Kentucky. In response to an inquiry he expressed himself at some length concerning the Howgate theory, about which he had read much in the public prints.

"Mr. Howgate's plan," he said, "is to colonize a given number of men, well equipped and provided for, in the highest attainable latitude, and to let them spend the first winter where Captain Hall did, up between 81° and 82° of north latitude, and to then go up to 83° or 84°, and spend another winter, and then up to 85° for another, and thus, by acclimating them­selves, gradually approach the region of the pole, even if it took three, four, or five years.

Leland Stanford Central Pacific Railroad California Governor

By John S. Hittell.

The death of Leland Stanford, which occurred on the 20th of June, is a nota­ble event in the history of California. During more than a quarter of a cen­tury he was the most distinguished citizen of our State, the one who did most to stimulate its industries and to increase its wealth. In many respects his career is one of the most remarkable of our time which abounds with remark­able careers. That he was governor of California in the critical period of the civil war; that he was twice elected to the Senate of the United States; that commencing life as a poor young man, he accumulated a fortune of many mil­lions; these are minor points in the interest with which he will be regarded in coming centuries.

His chief monuments are the Central Pacific Railway and the Leland Stan­ford Junior University. They are prominent and permanent institutions of our continent; they are marked on our maps; their names are familiar to journalism and to common speech in every continent. They will continue to exist to distant times, and while they exist Leland Stanford will not be for­gotten.

Although he had associates in the construction of the Central Pacific road, the main credit for the success of the enterprise belongs to him. In fact as well as in name he was the head of the company, the one best known at home and abroad, the one whose position and reputation inspired confidence, the one best fitted for the general control of a very extensive business, employing thousands of men, and highly compli­cated in its legal and political relations. And those in whose midst he stood con­spicuously eminent were not small men. C. P. Huntington, who alone of the five now survives, Mark Hopkins, Edward B. Crocker, and Charles Crocker, each had a remarkable combination of char­acter and capacity. Everyone of them proved to be extremely able in his de­partment; everyone of them com­manded the confidence of the others; and all his associates deferred to Mr. Stanford.

Dr. Charles H. Parkhurst Madison Square Presbyterian Church New York City

By Harold Parker.

Just twenty years ago a young man was called to preach in the little town of Lenox, Massachusetts. The sermons he preached there were heard in New York, and New York com­manded him. He had attended to his pastoral work in the metropolis for more than ten years, when he was chosen president of the Society for the Prevention of Crime. He had occupied this office for a full year, when, in Feb­ruary, 1892, he delivered a sermon on municipal corruption, the echoes of which still reverberate throughout the English speaking world. The work thus inaugurated was not hastily, spas­modically undertaken, but was accepted as the duty next at hand by one who had been prepared for the task by expe­rience and natural gifts.

So unique a figure in our modern civilization is Charles H. Parkhurst that a conventional biography of him would be impossible. The man is origi­nal to his finger tips. Ordinary lines of criticism fail to meet his case at any point. His life is a succession of con­tinual surprises, even to himself. Not that he is in any sense the creature of impulse, or in any sense wavering or uncertain. But no character in history is inherently less sensational, nor yet capable of creating greater sensations among men. His career has not been marked by that steady growth that might be likened to a coral reef, which, beginning with a tiny stone laid upon the floor of the southern ocean, is in­creased by other tiny stones, with mathematical regularity. He resembles rather a sublime volcano, the forces ever working within, but giving external evidence only by periodical outbursts that are awful in their majesty. The comparison is not hyperbolical. for this delicate organization, almost effeminate in its refinement, bas. by its wonderful temerity and pure singleness of purpose. opened in the modern world a vein of thought and purpose, the end of which no man can foresee.

Abram Stvens Hewitt New York Mayor & Congressman

By R. H. Titherington.

The other day the New York Chamber of Commerce decided that it was time to issue a protest against the continued delay in the legal preliminaries to the Pennsylvania Railroad's great work of tunneling the North River and establishing its terminus in the heart of New York.  The representatives of the business interests of the metropolis appointed Abram S. Hewitt to voice their desire that a plan promising such benefits to the city should not be obstructed by petty or selfish opposition. At the same time Mr. Hewitt, was engaged in a corre­spondence on the subject of the Penn­sylvania coal strike which attracted more attention, and exerted a greater influence on public opinion, than any other utterance on that burning ques­tion. Such are the avocations - the amusements, I had almost said of a man who celebrated his eightieth birthday last July, and who is still the active head of a large business concern.

Mr. Hewitt's best services to the pub­lic have been done as a private citizen. In New York politics, indeed, he never seemed quite in place. It may have been that he was too square for his sur­roundings, like the proverbial rectangu­lar peg in a circular hole. The result was a maximum of friction without a maximum of efficiency in operation. His election to the mayoralty was sup­posed to mean a general reform of the municipal organism, but as a matter of fad little or no permanent good was ac­complished, and when his term closed the machine had no difficulty in reas­serting its power.

Tuesday, September 13, 2011

Mosque of Eyoub Constantinople Stamboul

By Sydney Adamson.

When you have gone as far as the steamboat will take you, up the Golden Horn, beyond the farthest walls of ancient Byzantium, you set foot on the sacred soil of Eyoub Sultan. For the last mile or more, over the steamer's bow, the Mosque of Eyoub, a simple dome between two graceful minarets, has appeared rising amid a group of cypress-trees against a hill. Little domes seem to have drawn close to the parent mosque. They cover the tombs of illustrious dead. Closely gath­ered streets of red-roofed, faded wooden houses press in close protection about the mosque's silent groves: Through these groves run out narrow, stone - paved streets between stone walls. Within the old wrought-iron grilles that guard open­ings in these walls one sees groups of carved marble tombs. At intervals domed sepulchers mark the resting place of saints. So in Eyoub one reaches the mosque. past the wooden abodes of the living, through the cold stone streets of the dead.

From the village street two gateways give admission through high surrounding walls to the outer court. There thou­sands of pigeons live in the shadow of an enormous plane-tree that spreads its wide, protecting arms to shade the sacred court. Almost five hundred years have passed since the Sultan Mohammed II. set in the ground the sapling that has become an arboreal giant whose trunk is the girth of a group of thirty men. All day the doves coo their happiness to Allah for the peace of the great court, the protection of their tree of paradise, and for their guardian angel, always dozing below in the person of an old be-turbaned Turk. He receives money from the faithful (a holy act), then scat­ters their beneficence in golden grain for the happy birds to flutter over on the sun-flecked court.

New York Artist W. Granville Smith

By A. L. Samson.

W Granville Smith is one of our New York artists who, having made an enviable name for himself as an illustrator, is rising into the ranks of those count­ed as promising painters.

The illustrated periodical in this country has reached so high a standard and is so much in demand that it has long been recognized as the medium through which numbers of the most talented men have found, not only their first recognition, but a means of livelihood. Public opinion demands the best work in periodical illustration; those who enter into competition are artists of talent, some of whom have after­ward won academic honors; and the fact that W. Granville Smith, among so many competitors, and in spite of his youth, is counted as one of the most successful of our color and black and ­white artists, speaks volumes for the quality of his work.

Sunday, September 11, 2011

Problems in Negro Education Booker T. Washington Tuskegee Institute

By Booker T. Washington.

When I began the work of founding what is now known as the Tuskegee Normal and Industrial Institute, near the little town of Tuskegee, Alabama, I did not have a dollar to put into the work, nor did the institution own a dollar's worth of property. In looking about for a place in which to make a beginning, I happened to find an abandoned shanty that was about sixteen by twenty-four feet. This shanty was in such a condition that it was nearly ready to tumble down. The floor had holes in it so large that one had to be careful to see that one's foot did not slip through them. The walls were in about the same condition as the floor. When it rained the water would pour in at nearly every part of the house. At such a time the students would sit upon their books in order to keep them dry. More than once do I remember that when I would be hearing a recitation, one of the students would get an umbrella and hold it over me to shield me from the rain.

Russian Artist Vasili Verestchagin in Spanish American War Philippines

Isabel McDougall

A man who makes a specialty of paint­ing military pictures must needs fol­low the far-flung battle line from one ex­tremity of this quarrelsome globe to another. Thus Vasili Verestchagin was in his youth with the expedition which broke into wondrous Samarcand, the ancient treasure­ city of Tamerlane; in his manhood he was wounded on a Russian tor­pedo-boat; a year ago he found himself with the Amer­ican army near Manila. He has always been a student of "the game of king's," and being pre­vented from watching it in South Africa, he turned to those distant islands of the sea.

"What is going on there probably ap­pears to you a small war after the great campaigns you have seen."

"You may call it a small war if you like, but it is none the less a fierce one. War is war everywhere. It is today what it was yesterday - what it will be to­morrow. Always the same," says this Tolstoyan denouncer of bloodshed.

London Society in 1902 Royalty

By Emily Hope Westfield.

Society is a difficult word to define. The feat has often been attempted, out rarely has the proposed definition, how­ever lucid and comprehensive, been found acceptable to all parties. Naturally, to those on the outside of the wall, it pre­sents an appearance en­tirely different from what it does to those within the sanctuary. A London beau described so­ciety with satisfaction to himself as "the people we know," and though many quarreled with this epigram, there was no one brave enough to de­fine it as "the people we don't know."

The elements that combine to make up the society of London today are so various that the wittiest might rack his brain in vain to comprehend them in a polished aphorism. In  Walpole's day society, both in London and in Paris, consisted of three or four hundred people at the most, and was extraordinary for its brilliance. The excluded contem­plated its splendor from a respectful dis­tance, his vulgar breast untroubled by aspirations to break the in­vidious barriers that kept him on the outside. Indeed, any such ambition on his part would have been re­garded as out­rageous. There was no entrance to the circle of so­ciety. You had to Le born within it. And it might al­most be said that there was no exit either, for one who was a member of the charmed circle could do almost any­thing that he pleased without in any way affecting his social standing. With the in­creased power of money, each generation has seen the rigor of the ex­clusiveness relaxed.

Eyewitness Account to Eruption of Mont Pelee Matinique St Pierre Fort de France

By Ellery S. Scott.

I am a plain sailor and it is not easy for me to tell of those awful hours on the deck of the "Roraima" in St. Pierre harbor when death and destruction were all about me. That scene is like a nightmare to me now. At times it rises before me in all its vividness - at others I wonder if it was not all a horrible dream. Well do I know that it was not a dream, for though leagues of water now separate me from St. Pierre, before me ever is the face of my eldest boy, whose life was snuffed out, as were the lives of more than twenty-five thousand, on that fatal morning of May 8th when Mont Pe­lee with such swiftness poured a deluge of fire and ashes, and a hall of hot stones, upon St. Pierre - when the city was wiped from the face of the earth in a few minutes; when all except one of the ships in the harbor were overwhelmed, first by a wave that swept shoreward with resistless force and then by the rain from Pelee's crater.

Saturday, September 10, 2011

Albert Augustus Pope Boston Bicycle Manufacturer

By W. H. H. Murray.

The wheel is the symbol of commerce, of traffic, of human communication. The wheels of the world are numberless. On them the products of the earth are moved to the countless markets of the globe. They bring, they spin, they weave.

But the wheels of production, of manufacture, of commerce, of traffic hither and yon, are dependent on the road. The motive­ power of the world has no value or signifi­cance unless the skill, the wealth and the industry of men have constructed high­ways of earth and iron along which wheels may carry what wheels have made.

Man is a slow student at the best. Na­tions at birth have the ocular dimness of the infant's eye. The Appian Way was not constructed until Rome had come to the wisdom of one about to die. Had she apprehended a century sooner what a mighty bond of empire a magnificent high­way, stretching from one extremity of her boundary to the other, would be, her eagles might be flying today. The road builders are the empire builders of the world.

Joseph Pulitzer Publisher New York World Newspaper

By Arthur Brisbane.

Carlyle wrote of the visit of King John to the primitive monastery of olden days. And in one of his complain­ing parentheses he asked why no man who saw the king had thought of actually describing him. What did he look like? What did he wear? What did he say? What did those people think who saw him?

He who would de­scribe a human being today should begin first of all by doing the work of the eyes. He should give a pic­ture of the man that he who reads may know what he is read­ing about.

Joseph Pulitzer is a very tall man, tall in body - about six feet three inches tall in temper, tall in emotions, tall in sentiment, in force, in character. His face is powerful and concentrated. It has teeth turned inward, an unusual thing in men. He is modest concerning his personal appearance. He actually believes that he is ugly.

William Randolph Hearst Newspaper Publisher

By Arthur Brisbane.

W. R. Hearst's idea is to exercise public influence through the simul­taneous efforts of opinions in newspapers all over the United States.

He owns three great newspapers already: the "New York American and Journal," the "Chicago American" and the "San Francisco Examiner." All of these newspapers he has built up from nothing, and each is at least as successful as any other paper in the city in which it is published.

Mr. Hearst's idea is to establish news­papers in all of the great cities of the United States. He undoubtedly will begin the publication of a fourth newspaper during the current year.

Mr. Hearst is thirty-eight years old, con­siderably over six feet tall and a man well equipped for success. He is very strong physically, and usually remains at his newspaper office until two o'clock in the morning or later.

James Gordon Bennett Publisher New York Herald

By James Creelman.

In the sixty-first year of his eventful life James Gordon Bennett is today not only the most commanding figure in jour­nalism, but also the most cosmopolitan type of man to be found anywhere in the world. Although he has lived in Paris for about a quarter of a century, and has at times startled that frivolous capital by the daring of his leadership in adventurous gaiety, outdoing the ebullient eccentricities of the lightest hearted Bourbon princes - rash, headlong, irreverent - he has conducted in all its details the most prosperous and, in many respects, the most substantial and seriously enterprising newspaper in Amer­ica, never for an instant losing control of its every policy, always the initiator. always the master. To find a standard by which this innovating and dominating journalist can be measured, one must go back to the second John Walter, the greatest of the proprietors of the "London Times"; and yet Mr. Walter was only a journalist, while Mr. Bennett is famous as a traveler, yachtsman, marksman, whip, epicure and a man of fashion, at home in all countries. To understand the nomadic tendencies of the brilliant, many-sided man one must remember that he is still a bachelor; and to explain his alternate impulsiveness and far-seeing shrewdness it is necessary to know that he is half Scotch and half Irish. Mr. Bennett was born in New York city on May10,1841. His father, the founder of the New York Herald, was born in New Mill, near Keith, Scotland, on September 1, 1795, of Roman Catholic parents, who were said to be French in their origin. When the elder Bennett was fourteen years of age he was sent to Aberdeen to study for the priesthood, but did not pursue that vocation. He emigrated to Halifax, Nova Scotia, in April, 1819,and earned his living there as a bookkeeper until he went to Boston and found employment as a proofreader. In 1822 he moved to New York, where he was successive­ly the propri­etor of a com­mercial school, a lecturer on political econ­omy, a report­er and an as­sistant editor under James Watson Webb. He founded two small newspapers and failed both times. On May 6, 1835, he issued the first edition of the "New York Herald." In 1840 he mar­ried Miss Hen­rietta Agnes Crean, a poor but talented music teacher, whose parents were Irish. When he died in 1872 he was the richest and most aggres­sive editor in the country, the examplar and protagonist of personal journalism.

Inventor Alexander Graham Bell Telephone

By Garrett P Serviss.

Alexander Graham Bell pre­sents a remarkable example of ap­parent heredity in mental tendency, involv­ing three successive generations: that of the original possessor of the intellectual hereditament in question, that of his son and that of his grandson, the latter being the subject of our sketch. In other words, it might be affirmed that the telephone is the product of three generations of effort in one family to extend and perfect the domain of human speech. The steps fol­low one another with beautiful precision. First, in the early days of the nineteenth century Alexander Bell, a Scotchman, be­gan the march with an invention for re­moving impediments to speech. His life was concentrated upon the study of the natural organs of language and the means of improving them. To make the deaf heal, or at least to furnish them with some equivalent for hearing, was one of his dreams.

His son, Alexander Melville Bell, born at Edinburgh in 1819, took the next step. It was straight in line with his father's, but longer. He became connected with the University of Edinburgh and with the London University and later with Queen's College at Kingston, Canada, as a lecturer on the principles of speech and elocution. He greatly improved his father's system and invented a method of teaching deaf mutes to speak. It was called "visible speech," because it represented the pro­nunciation of words by symbols addressed to the eye, and it is still in use among in­stitutions for the deaf and dumb.

All this was not accomplished without a profound study of the mechanism of the organs of speech and hearing and of the laws of sound, and the results of these studies, directly transmitted to the man who was to make the third stride, led, according to the statement of Alexander Graham Bell himself, to the invention of the telephone.